Alterations in Hepatocellular, Reproductive, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Female Albino Rats Exposed to Crude Oil

Ibioku Elekima *

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Thankgod Prince Ohaka

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ngozi Brisibe

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Adline Ben-Chioma

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ibitoroko George-Opuda

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Orbenyie Mary Festus

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Ani Precious Onyinyechi

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Waribo Helen Anthony

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aim: To study the effect of exposure to crude oil on the liver, ovary, and some oxidative stress parameters in albino rats.

Study Design: A total of 50 female albino rats were used in the experiment. The rats were grouped into three: The control group which consisted of 10 rats, the low dose group which consisted of 20 rats, and the high dose group also consisted of 20 rats. The low dosage group was orally administered 1.5 mL crude oil mixed with 300 grams of rat feeds (0.005 mL/g) and the high dosage group was orally administered 3.0 mL crude oil mixed with 300 grams of rat feeds (0.01mL/g), while the control group was fed with normal rat feeds. The treated feeds were given once a day for 35 days.

Place of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: On the 36th day, the rats were sacrificed and then 5mL of blood from each rat was collected by cardiac puncture into labeled lithium heparin bottles for liver enzymes assay, hormonal assay, and oxidative stress parameters assay, while the livers and ovaries were harvested and fixed in 10% formal saline before tissue processing and histological examinations using H&E staining technique. The collected blood specimens were spun; the plasma was extracted and analyzed in the laboratory for Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, Malondialdyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad prism version 8.02.

Results: Significantly higher plasma levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in the treated groups, except for ALP which was only significantly higher in the high-dose group. FSH, LH, Prolactin, and SOD indicated significantly lower levels in the crude oil-treated rats. The histological examinations showed marked distortion in the architecture of the livers and ovaries of the treated groups, also, there was a reduction in ovarian cellularity and massive degenerated tissues.

Conclusion: It is shown that exposure to crude oil contaminants orally could have a significant effect on the plasma level of hepatocellular enzymes, reproductive hormones, and oxidative stress parameters which in turn could lead to hepatocellular dysfunction, infertility, or impaired reproduction in mammals and cellular injuries caused by excess free radicals as signaled by plasma level of oxidative stress parameters.

Keywords: Crude oil, hepatocellular enzymes, reproductive hormones, oxidative stress markers, Niger Delta


How to Cite

Elekima, I., Ohaka, T. P., Brisibe, N., Ben-Chioma, A., George-Opuda, I., Festus, O. M., Onyinyechi, A. P., & Anthony, W. H. (2022). Alterations in Hepatocellular, Reproductive, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Female Albino Rats Exposed to Crude Oil. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, 31(10), 22–31. https://doi.org/10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10783

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Bruederle A, Hodler R. Effect of oil spills on infant mortality in Nigeria. Proceedings of the National Academic of Science. 2019;116(12):5467-5471.

Micheal OE, Lasbrey A, Abanike TF, Tobchi A, Uwazie IU, Kalu EO. Oil Exploration and Exploitation in Nigeria and the Challenges of Sustainable Development:An Assessment of the Niger Delta. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy. 2019;9(4): 1-5.

Anakwue M, Anakwue R, Okeji M, Idigo F, Agwu K, Nwogu U. Sonographic assessment of petroleum-induced hepatotoxicity in Nigerians:does biochemical assessment underestimate liver damage? African Health Sciences. 2017;17(1):270–277.

Azeez M, Akhigbe RE, Anigbogu CN, Ige SF, Saka WA. Variability in cardiovascular functions and baroflex sensitivity following inhalation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research. 2012;3(2):99–103.

Wegwu M, Omeodu S. Evaluation of Selected Biochemical Indices in Clarias gariepinus Exposed to Aqueous Extract of Nigerian Crude Oil (Bonny Light). Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2010;14(1):77–81.

Manoli E, Kouras A, Karagkiozidou O, Argyropoulos G, Voutsa D, Samara C. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at traffic and urban background sites of northern Greece:Source apportionment of ambient PAH levels and PAH-induced lung cancer risk. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016;23:3556–3568.

Sun C, Zhang J, Ma Q, Chen Y, Ju H. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediment from a river basin:sediment–water partitioning, source identification and environmental health risk assessment. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2016;39:1–12.

Azubike P, Isaac A, Owoeye O, Ebenezer O. Neurotoxicity of Nigerian bonny light crude oil in rats. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;36(2):187–95.

Nriagu J, Udofia EA, Ekong I, Ebuk G. Health risk associated with oil pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. International Jounal of Environmental research and Public Health. 2016;13(3):346.

Adekanle O, Ijarotimi O, Obasi E, Anthony-Nwojo N, Ndububa DA. Southwest Nigerian tertiary hospital 5-year study of the pattern of liver disease admission. Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepathology. 2020;12(1):18-23.

Sule JO, Engbali P, Eruom L. Prevalence of infertility in Women in a Southern Nigerian Community. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2008;11:225- 227.

World Medical Association. Declaration of Helsinki. Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. Journal of American Association of Medicine. 2013;310(20), 2191-2194.

Ogara AL, Joshua PE, Omeje KO, Onwurah IN. Effects of Ingested Crude Oil Contaminated Diets on Antioxidant Enzyme and Lipid Profile in Wistar Albino Rat. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 2016;20(4): 927-932

Reitman S, Frankel S. Colorimetric estimation of serum transaminases. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1957;28(10):56-6.

King EJ, Armstrong AR. A convenient method for determining serum and bile phosphatase activity. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1934;3(4):376-381.

Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immuno-Chemistry. 1971;8(9):871– 874.

Marklund S, Marklund G. Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the auto-oxidation of pyrogallol and convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Journal of Biochemistry. 1974;47:469-474.

Gu X, Manautu J. Molecular mechanisms underlying chemical liver injury. Expert reviews in of Molecular Medicine. 2012; 3(14):4.

Giannini EG, Testa R, Savarino V. Liver enzymes alterations:a guide for clinicians. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2005;172(3):367-379.

Ubani CS, Josua PE. Biochemical assessment of kerosene contaminated diet on the liver enzyme markers of albino traits. Asian Journal Research Chem. 2010;3(3):795-800.

Ubani, CS, Oje, OA, Ogechukwu I. Effects of Excravos light crude oil on liver enzyme markers activity and malondialdehyde levels of rat. Journal of Environmental and Occupational Studies. 2012;1(3):161- 166.

Obidike NA. Effect of crude oil on intestinal motility and histology of ileum of wister rats. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2012;5(1):2012.

Raju GA, Chavan R, Deennadayal M, Gunasheela D, Gutgutia R, Haripiriya G, Govindarajan M, Patel HN, Pakti S. Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone synergy: A review of role in controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation. Journal of Human Reproductive Science. 2013;6(4):227-234.

Orisakwe OF, Afonne OJ, Nwobode E, Asonugha L, Dioka CE. Testicular toxicity of Nigeria’s bonny light crude oil in male albino rats. Reproductive Toxicity. 2004; 18:43-42.

Signh Z, Karthigesu, I, Singh P, Kaur R. Use of malondialdehyde as a biomarker for assessing oxidative stress in different disease pathologies: a Review. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2014;43(3): 7-16.

Alscher RG, Erturk N, Heath LS. Role of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in controlling oxidative stress in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 2002; 53(372):1331–1341.

Elchuri S, Oberley TD, Qi W, Eisenstein RS, Jackson Roberts L, Van Remmen H. CuZnSOD deficiency leads to persistent and widespread oxidative damage and hepatocarcinogenesis later in life. Oncogene. 2005;24 (3):367–380.

Muller FL, Song W, Liu Y, Chaudhuri A, Pieke-Dahl S, Strong R. Absence of CuZn superoxide dismutase leads to elevated oxidative stress and acceleration of age-dependent skeletal muscle atrophy". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 2006; 40(11):1993–2004.

Li Y, Huang TT, Carlson EJ, Melov S, Ursell PC, Olson JL. Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase. Nature Genetics. 1995;11 (4):376–381.

Adedara I, Teberen R, Ebokaiwe PA, Ikwo AN, Ehwerhemuepha T. Induction of oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats exposed to Nigerian bonny light crude oil. Environmental Toxicology. 2012;27(6):372-379.

Skrypnik L, Maslennikov P, Novikova A, Kozhikin M. Effect of crude oil on growth, oxidative stress and response of antioxidative system of two rye (Secale cereale L.) Varieties. Plants Basel. 2021;10(1):157.