Open Access Original Research Article

Inflammatory Mediators (CA125, CRP) and Uric Acid in Association with Severity of Preeclampsia in North Kordofan State, Western Sudan

Naglaa Abdelbasit Suliman, Khidir Elamin Awadalla, Khalid Hussein Bakheit, Abdelrahim Osman Mohamed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10781

Introduction: Inflammatory mediators could be laboratory markers of preeclampsia, as the induction of an inflammatory process within the placenta may trigger the expression of cancer antigen 125(CA125), C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid (UA). Regarding the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia, there is defective trophoblastic invasion of uteroplacental blood vessels that leads to placental ischemia, and induction of an inflammatory process within the placenta.

Objective: To evaluate the association of serum levels of cancer antigen (CA125), C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum uric acid with the Severity of Preeclampsia.

Materials and Methods: The study recruited 200 singleton Sudanese pregnant women. These participants were divided into two groups: control (n = 100) and cases (n = 100). The cases were further subdivided into; mild preeclampsia (n =46), and severe preeclampsia (n = 54). The study groups were well-matched in maternal age, gestational age and body mass index. Blood samples were taken for measurement of serum cancer antigen-CA125, uric acid and C - reactive protein using immune- assay and enzymatic automated chemical analysis.

Results: The mean levels of cancer antigen-CA125 in mild and severe preeclampsia groups were; 21.94±5.08 (IU/ml) and 40.77±9.82 (IU/ml) respectively, which were significantly higher, (P<0.001)   in comparison with the control group (16.88±7.36 (IU/ml). The mean levels of C-reactive protein in mild and severe preeclampsia were; 15.17±5.35 (mg/L), 31.49±12.56 (mg/L) respectively. There was significant difference in their levels, compared to the control group (4.79±1.78 (mg/L), (P<0.01).  Also, the mean levels of uric acid in mild and severe cases were; 6.44±1.98 and 7.37±2.00 which was significantly higher, in comparison with the control (4.00±0.61); (P<0.001). The level of uric acid also, showed significant difference within the case (severe and mild) group (P<0.05). CA125, CRP and UA level‎s correlated positively with Mean Arterial blood pressure (MAP), (r>0.7; P < 0.001). ROC curve validate the utility of these biomarker for the detection of preeclampsia severity (AUC>0. 8; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Serum cancer antigen 125(CA125), C- reactive protein and uric acid in studied preeclampsia groups were found to be significantly higher compared with the control group, and the rises were directly associated with the severity of preeclampsia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) I405V (rs5882) Polymorphism Affects Plasma Lipid Parameters and Lipoprotein Ratio in Hyperlipidemic Ischemic Stroke Patients

Johnson Oshiobugie Momoh, Kolawole Gbemavo Godonu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 11-21
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10782

Background: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other lipoproteins are metabolized in part by the cholesteryl ester transport protein (CETP). Cardiovascular risk and the occurrence of ischemic stroke are linked to polymorphism in the CETP gene.

Methodology: For the study, 100 ischemic stroke patients and 100 controls with matched sexes and ages ranging from 46 to 87 were chosen. Lipoprotein ratios were computed using Excel software, and lipid parameters were evaluated using Randox diagnostic kits. Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and 2% gel electrophoresis were used to genotype the CETP gene. The genotyping of the CETP gene were performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) combined with 2% gel electrophoresis.

Results: There were significant difference (P<0.0001) in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of CETP SNP between the healthy and patients with ischemic stroke. The frequencies of I/I, I/V and V/V genotypes of the CETP gene were 48%, 37% and 15% for the control and 17%, 33% and 50%, for the stroke subjects, respectively. The frequencies of I and V alleles were 67% and 33% for the control and 37.5% and 62.5% for the stroke subjects, respectively. The V allele carriers of CETP gene had higher plasma TC, TG, VLDL-C, LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, defective HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL3-C when compared to the I allele carriers for both subjects. The V allele carriers were responsible for the increase in dyslipidemia for both subjects.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that mutation of CETP I405V (rs5882) polymorphism causes an increased in plasma TC, TG, VLDL-C, LDL-C, Non-HDL-C, defective HDL-C, HDL2-C and HDL3-C concentration and is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in Hepatocellular, Reproductive, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Female Albino Rats Exposed to Crude Oil

Ibioku Elekima, Thankgod Prince Ohaka, Ngozi Brisibe, Adline Ben-Chioma, Ibitoroko George-Opuda, Orbenyie Mary Festus, Ani Precious Onyinyechi, Waribo Helen Anthony

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 22-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10783

Aim: To study the effect of exposure to crude oil on the liver, ovary, and some oxidative stress parameters in albino rats.

Study Design: A total of 50 female albino rats were used in the experiment. The rats were grouped into three: The control group which consisted of 10 rats, the low dose group which consisted of 20 rats, and the high dose group also consisted of 20 rats. The low dosage group was orally administered 1.5 mL crude oil mixed with 300 grams of rat feeds (0.005 mL/g) and the high dosage group was orally administered 3.0 mL crude oil mixed with 300 grams of rat feeds (0.01mL/g), while the control group was fed with normal rat feeds. The treated feeds were given once a day for 35 days.

Place of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Methodology: On the 36th day, the rats were sacrificed and then 5mL of blood from each rat was collected by cardiac puncture into labeled lithium heparin bottles for liver enzymes assay, hormonal assay, and oxidative stress parameters assay, while the livers and ovaries were harvested and fixed in 10% formal saline before tissue processing and histological examinations using H&E staining technique. The collected blood specimens were spun; the plasma was extracted and analyzed in the laboratory for Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), Prolactin, Malondialdyde (MDA), and Superoxide dismutase (SOD). Statistical analysis was performed using Graphpad prism version 8.02.

Results: Significantly higher plasma levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in the treated groups, except for ALP which was only significantly higher in the high-dose group. FSH, LH, Prolactin, and SOD indicated significantly lower levels in the crude oil-treated rats. The histological examinations showed marked distortion in the architecture of the livers and ovaries of the treated groups, also, there was a reduction in ovarian cellularity and massive degenerated tissues.

Conclusion: It is shown that exposure to crude oil contaminants orally could have a significant effect on the plasma level of hepatocellular enzymes, reproductive hormones, and oxidative stress parameters which in turn could lead to hepatocellular dysfunction, infertility, or impaired reproduction in mammals and cellular injuries caused by excess free radicals as signaled by plasma level of oxidative stress parameters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Aims: The study was conducted to compare the alteration in haematological and biochemical parameters in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) under natural (river) and artificial (ponds) habitats in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria.

Study Design: Whole blood and serum samples harvested from each group of the catfish were used for assessment of the haematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. Data were analyzed to compare changes between the two groups of African catfishes using T-test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Place and Duration of Study: Catfish samples were collected over a period of four weeks from Kwalkwalawa river and commercial fish farms in Sokoto metropolis. Samples for haematological parameters were determined at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto. The serum analyses were performed at the Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto.

Methodology: A total of fifty (50) whole blood samples were obtained from live African catfishes representing twenty-five (25) samples each from natural and artificial environments.

Results: The results showed significant changes in some haematological parameters, packed cell volume (P = 0.039), haemoglobin concentration (P = 0.001), white blood cell count (P = 0.012), and differential neutrophils (P = 0.001) and lymphocytes (P = 0.001) counts between the two groups of African catfishes studied. Significant biochemical alterations in the total protein (P = 0.001), total bilirubin (P = 0.028) and direct bilirubin (P = 0.019) were observed in catfishes under natural and artificial environments.

Conclusion: This study shows that aquaculture environment has great influence on the haematological and biochemical parameters in African catfish. These changes were more evident in catfish reared under the natural environment. Hence, the alterations in haemato-biochemical parameters were suggestive of unhealthy state or chronic stressful condition in catfish perhaps due to natural and human caused stresses.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formulation of a Flavored Drink Based on Sapodilla Puree, Pineapple Juice and Lemongrass Essential Oil

Christian T. R. Konfo, M. Vahid Aïssi, Yaya A. Koudoro, Gérard M. Bocoga, Edwige Dahouénon-Ahoussi, Dominique C. K. Sohounhloué

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 38-48
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10785

Aims: Neglected or underutilized plant species, such as sapodilla (Manilkara zapota), which play a substantial role in the livelihoods of populations but whose potential remains still under-exploited, deserve particular attention from researchers to a better knowledge of its food applications. This study aims to develop a novel drink based on sapodilla fruit and other known ingredients with acceptable sensory, microbiological and physicochemical characteristics.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Ecole des Sciences et Techniques de Conservation et de Transformation des Produits Agricoles of the Université Nationale d'Agriculture (UNA) in Benin between June and September 2021.

Methodology: Flavored beverages with the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus were formulated from sapodilla puree and pineapple juice following a mixing plan. The microbiological, organoleptic and physicochemical analyzes of formulated cocktail were then carried out by standard methods.

Results: All the formulated drinks presented a satisfactory microbiological quality. The E5 formula containing 10% of the sapodilla puree and 90% of the juice of pineapple and the essential oil of C. citratus was the most accepted by tasters. This beverage had a pH of 5.46±0.06, a total soluble solid of 17.25±0.35 ºBrix and a specific gravity of 1.08±0.01. The titratable acidity, total ash and dry matter content were 0.80±0.01 g/100g, 0.19±00% and 15.28±1.07 respectively.

Conclusion: The fruit of sapodilla can be valued through good quality drinks which can be popularized after a nutritional characterization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juice on Liver of Diabetic Mice

Maha K. Aljuaid, Hayat Ashi, Rahaf M. Fadul, Raghad Al Mutawea, Nouf Alqethami, Israa Fawtah, Asmaa H. Al-Robiee, Enas A. Hamed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 49-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10786

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a serious metabolic disorder. Pomegranate has various biological effects. The present study evaluated pomegranate juice (PJ) therapeutic effects on the liver of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced DM mice model. Fifty male mice were distributed into 5 equal groups (10 each). Groups were negative control, PJ group received orally PJ (180 mg/kg), diabetic group received STZ (60 mg/kg), the diabetic received pomegranate juice (STZ+PJ) group, the diabetic received metformin (250 mg/kg) (STZ+MET) group. The experiment duration was 6 weeks. Initial and final body weights and liver weights were measured. At the experimental end, blood glucose levels and liver enzymes serum levels as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. A liver histological examination was made under a light microscope. STZ led to a significant decreased in final body weight, and an increase in blood glucose and serum levels of AST, ALT, and ALP versus control. PJ administration to diabetic mice significantly decreased blood glucose and serum levels of liver enzymes versus the STZ group but AST and ALP levels were still elevated versus control. Histopathological liver examination of PJ-and MET-treated groups showed amelioration of histological changes of DM. Metformin repairs damaged hepatic cells but was not as effective as PJ. In conclusion, pomegranate juice improves liver health in diabetic mice.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Red Blood Cells Trace Elements as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer by X-Ray Fluorescence

Alkhansa Salih Mahmoud, Khalda Awad Albadwa, Khalid Hussein Bakheit

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 74-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10789

Introduction: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that cause women death. Several factors influence the development of breast cancer. Trace elements are associated with breast cancer risk factors. This study investigated six trace elements in red blood cells of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer, compared to healthy women.

Methods: 38 Sudanese women participated in this study; 19 of them were breast cancer patients, who were compared with 19 healthy women of the same age to determine the concentrations of K, Zn, Cu, Fe, Ca, and Pb in red blood cells by X-ray fluorescence.

Results: K concentration was significantly increased in breast cancer patients compared to the control group (P= < 0.001). Zn and Cu were slightly decreased in patients compared to the control group. In contrast, insignificant increase was observed for Fe, Ca and Pb in breast cancer patients compared to the control group. Correlations between Fe and Cu, K and Pb were found in breast cancer patients.

Conclusion: High K concentration in red blood cells is associated with breast cancer risk in Sudanese women. K can be used as a biomarker for breast cancer prognosis and development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mineral Element Contents and Antisickling Activity of Cyttaranthus congolensis and Hypoxis angustifolia Traditionally Used to Treat Sickle Cell Disease in Kwilu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Jules M. Kitadi, Clément L. Inkoto, Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu, Dorothée Dinangayi Tshilanda, Taba Kalulu, Papy Kawata, Koto-Te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 81-90
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10790

The objective of the present study was to determine the composition in mineral elements, the antisickling activity and the osmotic brittleness test, of the twenty three extracts of two plants Cyttaranthus congolensis, Hypoxis angustifolia used in the management of sickle cell disease by the traditional healers in Kwilu province.  Mineral composition analyses of these two plants were performed using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method. Twenty three( 23) mineral elements were identified in each of these two plants among others: Potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Magnesium (Mg), Sulfur (S), Chlorine (Cl) and trace elements such as: Aluminum (Al), Silicon (Si), Vanadium (V), Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn), Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Bromine (Br), Molybdenum (Mo), Tin (Sn), Iodine (I), Barium (Ba) and Lead (Pb). Mineral elements related to sickle cell disease are: Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Selenium (Se), Copper (Cu), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Manganese (Mn). Of all these elements, Potassium and Calcium are in higher content while Lead, Tin, Bromine, Copper and Nickel are in trace amounts. The antisickling activity of Cyttaranthus congolensis and Hypoxis angustifolia extracts, was tested using the Emmel test. The results obtained showed a significant in vitro antisickling activity for both plants. The osmotic fragility test used to confirm the Emmel test showed that the hemolysis rate decreased with increasing NaCl concentration. In the presence of anthocyanins, the antihemolytic activity at different NaCl concentrations was higher than the control. This indicates the action of the extracts of these plants on the osmotic fragility of red blood cell membrane.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Anti-inflammatory and Anti-cholesterolemic Activities of Chrysanthellum americanum (L) Vatke Harvested in Mali

Moussa Oumou Koné, Issiaka Togola, Mamadou Abdoulaye Konaré, Nouhoum Diarra, Rokia Sanogo, Moussa Karembé

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 91-99
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10791

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and anticholesterolemic activities of Chrysanthellum americanum extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: The plant material was harvested in September 2021 at Findiala located in Kolondièba, Mali. The phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anticholesterolemic activities were performed at the Laboratory of Plant and Food Biochemistry and Biotechnologies of the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (Mali) from September 2021 to January 2022.

Methodology: The phytochemical screening based on classical methods was performed. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the protein denaturation method. The binding capacity of protein hydrolysates to bile salts was used to evaluate the anticholesterolemic activity.

Results: The screening of C. americanum extracts revealed the presence of numerous secondary metabolites including alkaloids, polyphenols, and flavonoids. These extracts at different concentrations showed a good anti-inflammatory activity in vitro. Indeed, at 1 mg/mL of extracts with protein denaturation inhibition rates ranging from 73.33% to 79.42% respectively for infusion and decoction, against 93.33% for diclofenac (positive control). Cholesterol reduction rates ranging from 36.28±2.44% to 72.37±2.29% were recorded. Trypsin hydrolysates showed the best results with 72.37% binding to sodium cholate after 90 minutes followed by the decoction with 58.30% binding to sodium deoxycholate after 90 minutes of hydrolysis with infusion.

Conclusion: The data obtained from this study show the richness in anti-inflammatory and anticholesterolemic activities of C. americanum extracts. Therefore, this species could be a promising source of anti-inflammatory and anticholesterolemic agents.

Open Access Review Article

Effect of Extraction Method from Brown Seaweeds Padina sp. on Quality of Alginate for Edible Film Application: A Review

Eko Waluyo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Volume 31, Issue 10, Page 60-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2022/v31i10787

Aims: This review aims to study the effect of the extraction method on the quality of the alginate extracted from Padina sp. and study its application for edible films.

Study Design: This research was conducted using a systematic literature review method.

Place and Duration of Study: Library sources are research articles that are available online and can be accessed through websites or search engines by entering keywords that are relevant to the topics.

Results: The results obtained are various information about the alginate of Padina sp seaweed extracted from several methods such as the acid pathway method, the potassium method without the addition of potassium hydroxide and the calcium method with the addition of potassium hydroxide, and the application of alginate for edible films. It is recommended that further research be carried out to obtain alginate results with more diverse extraction methods.