Open Access Original Research Article

Hematological Parameters and Lipid Profile Changes in Albino Rats due to Administration of Ethanol Extract of Ipomea batatas Leaves

M. O. Enemali, J. Akolo, G. S. Haruna, J. E. Bulus, P. J. Kassah, I. C. Ejiogu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i930286

Leaves of I. batatas have been implicated in both the hematopoietic process and in the management of hyperlipidemia in man. The current study evaluated the hematopoietic potentials and the lipid profile stabilizing potential of ethanol leaf extract of I. batatas in albino rats. The study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the Nasarawa State University, Keffi, between March 2019 and October 2019. The determination of the phytochemical composition of the leaves was carried out. Sixteen albino rats weighing between 100-150g were randomly distributed into 4 groups of 4 rats each. Animals in group 1 served as the control while animals in groups 2, 3, and 4 served as the test groups and were administered 200, 300 and 400g/kg body weight respectively of ethanol leaf extract of I batata for fourteen days following standard procedures. The extract contained terpenoids in high amount, flavonoids and alkaloids in moderate amounts, while glycosides, phenolic, and steroids were present in low amounts. WBC counts increased significantly across the test groups compared to the control. PLT decreased significantly (P = 0.05) in all the test groups when compared to the control group. MCV increased significantly (P = 0.05) in all the test groups when compared to the control group. MCH increased significantly (P = 0.05) in group 2 but decreased significantly in groups 3 and 4 when compared to the control group. The lipid profile parameters; triglycerides (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) showed no significant changes but HDL-C decreased significantly in group 4 compared to the control. The outcome of this study revealed that the ethanol leaves extract of I. batatas may possess a hematopoietic effect but may not be effective in the management of hyperlipidemia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Wound Healing Property of the Ethanolic Seed Extract of Eleusine coracana Linn using the Chorioallantoic Membrane Model

K. J. Bot, F. M. Agwom, K. Kim, S. C. Chollom, P. O. Odumosu, N. A. Ochekpe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 13-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i930287

Access to readily available material for wound healing is very important. The wound healing property of Eleusine coracana a food source in Nigeria was therefore investigated. The ethanolic crude extract of the seed flour was prepared using maceration and qualitative phytochemical screening was carried out on the crude extract using standard methods. The antimicrobial activity of the E. coracana extract was determined using the disc diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and C. tetani. The wound healing property assay was carried out using the Chorioallantoic Membrane Model (CAM) at 50mg, 100mg, 150mg, and 200mg/ml concentration with the basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) as the positive control. The crude extract was further fractionated into Hexane, Methanolic, and Aqueous fractions and then subjected to amino acid content analysis using the Applied Biosystems Phenylthiohydantoin (PTH) Amino Acid Analyzer. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, flavonoids, carbohydrates, glycoside, and protein. E. coli and S. aureus were susceptible to the E. coracana extract at a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 50µg/ml while the P. aeruginosa was only susceptible at 200µg/ml and C. tetani was not susceptible at all the concentrations used. An increase in percentage angiogenesis was observed at all doses of the extract used indicating good wound healing properties. The amino acid profile reveals the presence of glycine, a proline that is important in wound healing. The E. coracana seeds, therefore, have wound healing properties based on the CAM model.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity, Antioxidant Potential and Stigmasterol Isolation from Laggera aurita Linn (Asteraceae)

C. Yohanna, A. Kwaji, R. Atiko

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 24-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i930288

The study was aimed at the in-vitro investigation of the antibacterial activity, antioxidant potential and bioactive compound isolation from ethyl acetate crude fraction of Laggera aurita (L. aurita) Linn. The crude fraction was tested against five gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis) and three gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis) using macro dilution technique. The antioxidant potentials were evaluated using two different but complementary methods namely ferrous ion chelating activity (FICA) and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP). Phytocompound isolation was carried out on low pressure open column chromatography. The crude fraction displayed moderate to significant activity against all tested bacteria exhibiting both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. The crude fraction showed Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) in the range of 62.50-250 µg/mL and 125-1000 µg/mL respectively. The crude fraction was bactericidal to all tested pathogens except E. coli. The fifty percent effective concentration (EC50) of EDTA standard and the ethyl acetate fraction were obtained as 10.87 μg/mL and 25.77 μg/mL respectively. Similarly the FRAP determinations for ascorbic acid and ethyl acetate fraction yielded 153.63 and 134.40 Fe2+ Equivalent per g of fraction indicating 80.06% and 70.61% FRAP units respectively. The isolated phytocompound coded LAE was obtained as a white crystalline solid with melting point of 136‐138°C and Rf of 0.56 in hexane: ethylacetate (6:4). The isolated compound was identified by spectroscopic data analysis from FT-IR, GC-MS, 1D and 2D NMR and in comparison with literature. The compound was identified as stigmasterol. The observed significant antibacterial and antioxidant properties demonstrated by L. aurita in this study validate its widespread use in traditional medicine. Therefore the study had shown that L. aurita contains bioactive principles and may serve as a source for potential antibacterial and oxidative stress therapeutic agents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Defense Priming in Okra using Chemically Defined Elicitors

Kiran R. Kharat, Raveendran Pottathil

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 40-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i930289

Biotic and abiotic stresses pose a threat to the growth and yield of plants. With increasing population and decreasing viable land area, there is a dire need of stress-resistant crop plants. Bam-FX treatment provides a sustainable method of priming the immune systems of plants without the need of genetic modifications.

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) seeds and seedlings were treated with chemically defined elicitors -Bam-FX solutions of different concentrations to assess its effect on seed germination and plantlet morphological growth. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) and High resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HR-LCMS/MS) were used to assess various metabolites in treated samples. We also treated some seeds with fungus (Aspergillus sp. 100 cfu/mL) or organic acids to assess the priming effect in seeds.

We observed that, of the four Bam-FX concentrations initially selected, Bam-FX dilutions of 1:175, 1:250, 1:500 were most effective in inducing the most optimal seed germination and morphological growth of the seedlings. Bam-FX treatment led to most marked upregulation of carboxylic acid and fumaric acid in both Okra seeds and seedlings. The fungal infection seemed to exhibit synergistic effect against Bam-FX treatment. The treatment with organic acids seemed to induce certain metabolites, such as carbamic acid, phenylboronic acid, anthranilic acid, etc., that were not otherwise induced in the non-Bam-FX-treated samples. Bam-FX, though originally designed for optimal plant growth in space, exhibited a high potential in priming the defense mechanisms of Okra against abiotic stresses.