Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Methaemoglobin in Haemoglobin Variants in Selected Ethnic Groups in Bayelsa State

Victor Tuanwii Ideede, Awortu Zaccheaus Jeremiah, Evelyn Mgbeoma Eze, Jonathan Nyebuchi, Eni-yimini Solomon Agoro, Christian Atiegha

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730276

Methaemoglobin (Met-Hb) is a type of the oxygen-carrying metalloproteinhemoglobin. The heme group iron exists as ferric (Fe3+) iron, rather than the ferrous (Fe2+) iron of typical hemoglobin. Met-Hb is unable to perform the function of binding to oxygen like oxyhaemoglobin does. The aim of this study was to compare methaemoglobin levels between AA and AS haemoglobin variants among the Ijaw, Igbo and Yoruba ethnic groups residing in Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 150 subjects were enrolled for the study. One hundred and sixteen subjects constituted the Ijaws; 21 Igbos and 13 Yorubas. For each subject, 4mls of blood sample collected in EDTA bottle was assayed for methaemoglobin using a spectrophotometric method. Results revealed there was no significant difference in the methaemoglobin mean levels between the AA and AS haemoglobin variants (P-value>0.05) of the ethnic groups except the Igbo ethnic group (P-value <0.05). However, comparing the methaemoglobin mean levels among the ethnic groups showed a significant mean difference of methaemoglobin (P-value <0.05). All Post-hoc groups showed significant difference except the Igbo and Yorubo ethnic groups (P-value >0.05). In conclusion, this study has revealed that methaemoglobin levels changes significantly based on studied tribes but does not change based on studied haemoglobin variants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Vitamins and Possible Nutrient Composition of Local and Improved Specie of Guava Flesh (Psidium guajava)

C. E. Oguazu, K. H. Adimora, B. A. Anajekwu, C. C. Dike, C. G. Ikimi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 6-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730277

Background and Objectives: Guava (Psidium guajava) belongs to the family Myrtaceae. It has been cultivated in Nigeria one of the most common fruits in Nigeria. It has become popular because of its availability almost throughout the year. The objective of this study is to evaluate the nutritional and vitamin contents of the flesh of the local and improved guava species.

Materials and Methods: Proximate components were determined using the AOAC method for the moisture, ash, crude lipid, nitrogen content (crude protein) and Carbohydrate. Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6 and B12 were analyzed using standard methods.

Results: The result showed that moisture and carbohydrate content of the improved white guava flesh is low compared with the local white guava species (9.8825 and 14.4015%) and (56.378 and 62.802%), respectively. The ash, fat, fibre and protein content of the improved white guava flesh are high compared with the local guava species (11.25 and 5.15%), (5.55 and 1.335%), (6.6145 and 6.5865%) and (10.325 and 8.225%). Improved White guava flesh is relatively low in Vitamin A, vitamin B3, vitamin B6 and vitamin C compared to local white guava flesh, while the local white guava flesh is relatively poor in vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin E compared to improved white guava flesh.

Conclusion: The present findings suggest guava flesh as a considerable source of nutrients in the diet and may have health and economic benefits due to its vitamins, and nutritional composition.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Insight into the Proofreading Functions of Multisubunit DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases and Their Catalytic Mechanism

Peramachi Palanivelu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 15-59
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730278

Aim: To analyze the active sites of the proofreading (PR) functions in the multisubunit DNA-dependent RNA polymerases (MSU RNAPs) from prokaryotes, chloroplasts and eukaryotes, and propose a plausible unified catalytic mechanism for these enzymes.

Study Design: Data collected on these enzymes from bioinformatics, biochemical, site-directed mutagenesis (SDM), X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) were used for the analyses.

Methodology: The protein sequence data of MSU RNAPs from prokaryotes, prokaryotic-types (plant chloroplasts) and eukaryotes were obtained from PUBMED and SWISS-PROT databases. The advanced version of Clustal Omega was used for protein sequence analysis. Along with the conserved motifs identified by the bioinformatics analysis, the data already available from biochemical and SDM experiments, and X-ray crystallographic and cryo-EM data on these enzymes are also used to confirm the possible amino acids involved in the active site of the PR function in these MSU RNAPs

Results: All the seven types of MSU RNAPs (I-VII) reported from prokaryotes to eukaryotes were analyzed by the multiple sequence alignment (MSA) software, Clustal Omega, to find out conservations among them. The MSA analysis showed many conserved amino acid motifs including small and large peptide regions from the MSU RNAPs of prokaryotes, eukaryotes and plant chloroplasts. Interestingly, the catalytic amino acid and template-binding pairs are highly conserved in all these polymerases, with a few exceptions. Most of them use a basic amino acid (R/K/H) for initiating catalysis and an -YG/FG- pair for template-binding. Some odd type of catalytic amino acids and template-binding pairs are observed in human pathogens, parasites and organisms which cannot ferment sugars. In all the MSU RNAPs, the proposed polymerase catalytic region also possessed three invariant Cs and an invariant H within it. The invariant Cs is shown to bind a zinc atom and proposed to involve in the PR function by excising any misincorporated nucleotide during the transcription process. In the plant-specific MSU RNAPs IV and V, which involve in transcriptional gene silencing in plants, the catalytic and template-binding pairs do not follow the regular distance conservations as observed with other five of the MSU RNAPs. Their polymerase/PR active site regions are similar to RNAP III rather than to RNAP II, as all three make only low molecular weight RNAs.

Conclusions: All the known MSU RNAPs possess three invariant Cs and an invariant H embedded within the polymerase active site itself. The three invariant Cs are shown to bind a zinc atom and the invariant H could act as the proton acceptor from a metal-bound water molecule, for initiating excision of the mismatches by a Zn-mediated hydrolysis. Thus, the PR function in MSU RNAPs is integrated within the polymerase active site itself, which is in sharp contrast to the PR functions reported in DNA-dependent DNA polymerases and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Therefore, all the seven MSU RNAPs from prokaryotes and eukaryotes are proposed to follow a unified mechanism to excise the mismatches during transcription. The discovery of intrinsic self-correcting RNA transcription mechanism fulfils the missing link in molecular evolution.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Case-control Study on the Association of Mitochondrial Transcription Factor a Gene +35G/C Polymorphism and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number with the Risk of Endometriosis in Indian Women

Himabindu Beeram, Tumu Venkat Reddy, Suresh Govatati, Swapna Siddamalla, Mamata Deenadayal, Sisinthy Shivaji, Manjula Bhanoori

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 60-67
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730279

Aim: The Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA copy number variations are known to contribute in disease development. Genetic factors play an important role in the development of endometriosis. Therefore, this case–control study aimed to analyze the association of TFAM+35G/C polymorphism and mitochondrial copy number with the risk of endometriosis in Indian women.

Study Design: This study was carried out on 418 subjects including 200 endometriosis cases and 218 controls.

Methodology: Genotyping of TFAM +35G/C polymorphism (rs1937) was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Quantification of mtDNA copy number was carried out using a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Osmania University, 2014 to 2020.

Results: TFAM genotype as well as allele distributions were all in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results indicated a significant reduction of GG genotype frequency (P=0.009), high ‘C’ allele frequency (P=0.017) and significantly decreased mtDNA copy number in endometriosis cases compared to controls (P= 0.0001).

Conclusion: Present study revealed a statistically significant association of decreased GG genotype of TFAM +35G/C polymorphism and mtDNA copy number with the risk of developing endometriosis in Indian women.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bioassay Guided Screening of Cryptolepis Extracts for Onward Synthesis of Nano Ferrites

Hafza Murtaza, Aasia Sikander, Umema Murtaza, Ashir Masroor, Filza Ghafoor

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 68-74
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i730280

A study was designed to investigate the presence of nanoferrites in Cryptolepis buchanani. In this study, various leaves and stem organic extracts were prepared separately using the solvents viz., n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. Different phytochemical tests for alkaloids, carbohydrates, oils, amino acids and others were performed to determine their presence in the extracts. These plant extracts were used for screening of sample via UV and HPLC techniques to compare the wavelength and absorbance, and retention time on chromatogram by extracts, respectively. The results showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates and proteins in all the samples. However, other compounds were present randomly. Spectroscopy showed highest peaks with ethyl acetate extracts and the lowest with water. The surface properties and size of nickel-zinc nano ferrites were evaluated by Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The former, showed the presence of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) weighing 4.27⁒ of N ,6.89⁒ of C and 35.5⁒ of O in the sample which confirmed the presence of nano ferrites in leaves and stem of C. buchanani.