Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Biochemical and Microbiological Properties of Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms Cultivated and Sold in M’Badon Village (Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire)

Jacques Mankambou Gnanwa, Athanase Kra Kouassi, Y. A. Kouamé, Massé Diomande, Grah Avit Maxwell Beugre, Lucien Patrice Kouame

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630270

Objective: The present study aims to constitute a database necessary for the efficient valorisation of the local cultivated edible mushrooms in the Ivorian diet. This work consisted in evaluating the biochemical characteristics and microbiology analysis of cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus species sold and used in rural and urban people food.

Methodology: Standard methods proposed by AOAC made this study possible to determine the biochemical parameters such as dry matter, ash, pH, moisture, protein and lipid content. The microbiological analyses enabled the enumerations of yeasts and molds, fecal coliforms, aerobic mesophilic germs, detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and Salmonella were performed.

Results: The results showed that the cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus is a food, rich in protein (16.37 ± 0.6 % dw), crude fibre (24.85 ± 0.08 dw) and in ash (11.00 ± 1.33 % dw). On the other hand, this mushroom is relatively low in lipids (4.16 ± 0.13% dw) and reducing sugars (1.04 ± 0.07 % dw) with a low moisture content (6.40 ± 1.13 % dw). These results also revelated the absence of Salmonella and Escherichia coli in the flour.

Conclusion: Local cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom is an undeniable source of protein and crude fibre. Thus it would be used as a substitute for meat diet, allow a good functioning of the immune system and the good development of bones. It also show satisfactory microbiological criteria. Thus Pleurotus ostreatus mushroom is a safety food for ivorian.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and 15-Lypoxygenase Inhibitory Effects of Daniellia oliveri (rolfe) Hutch. & Dalziel (Fabaceae)

Mariam Traore, Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, Aboubacar Yaro, Esther W. L. M. Kabre, Noufou Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 10-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630271

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant and 15-lipoxygenase inhibition effects of methanolic extract and its fractions of Daniellia. oliveri stem bark.

Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in the Department of Traditional Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacy (MEPHATRA / PH) of the Institute for Research in Health Sciences (IRSS) and LABIOCA from Université Joseph KI-ZERBO in Ouagadougou between February 2018 and June 2019

Methodology: The phytochemical screening and phenolic content were determined by the methods described in the literature. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,20-azinobis 3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate), FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The anti-inflammatory activities were measured on the ability of the extract to inhibit the activity of enzymes such as 15-lipoxygenase

Results: Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, anthocyanosides, triterpenes and sterols. The extract and its fractions showed a good content of phenolic compounds with values ranging from 773.97 ± 22.91 to 505.51 mg EAG / g for total polyphenols; from 24.38 ± 0.34 to 12.04 ± 0.08 mg EQ / g in total flavonoids, 311.65 ± 6.70 to 221 ± 0.52 mg EC / g in condensed tannins; 681.81 ± 3.97 to 421.29 ± 8.73 mg EUA / g in total triterpenes and from 280.29 ± 21.72 to 222.04 ± 20.99 mg EC / g for total sterols. The methanol fraction showed the best antioxidant activity as well as the best inhibitory effect on 15-lipoxygenase activity.

Conclusion: These results showed that Daniellia. oliveri possessed an antioxidant power, an inhibitory effect of 15 lipoxygenase. Daniellia oliveri could be used in the management of inflammatory pathologies and oxidative stress.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Total Phenols from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides Leaves Treated Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Albino Rats

C. O. Ekwemba, N. Nwachukwu, C. O. Ibegbulem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 19-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630273

Aims: Ethyl acetate fraction of total phenols from Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides leaves was evaluated for its effects in alloxan-induced diabetic male albino rats.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced in rats by administrating alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 130 mg/kg body weight. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered to rats at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. daily for 15 days. Blood glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic histopathology were monitored using standard methods.

Results: Results indicated that two weeks after treatment with Z. zanthoxyloides, significant (p<0.05) reductions in hyperglycemic blood glucose, total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) were recorded; with lowest values recorded in the group treated with the highest concentration of the extract. Histopathological examination of pancreatic tissues supported the protective effect of Z. zanthoxyloides phenol extract against diabetic damage.

Conclusion: In conclusion, total phenols of Z. zanthoxyloides exerted antidiabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats and protected pancreatic tissues from diabetic damage.

Open Access Original Research Article

mir186 and mir145 In vivo Evaluation and Enrichment in Rats Submitted to Treadmill Strenuous Exercise

Raquel Martins De Freitas, Christina Pacheco, Stela Mirla Da Silva Felipe, Jannison Karlly Ribeiro Cavalcante, Paulo Elesson Oliveira, Denner Silvino Da Silva, Vânia Marilande Ceccatto

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 31-44
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630274

Aims: The present study aimed to identify miRNAs differentially expressed in rats submitted to strenuous exercise and in silico investigation of the biological implication of the findings.

Place and Duration of Study: The in vivo experiments and analyses were performed in the Laboratory of Biochemistry and Gene Expression – LABIEX of the Superior Institute of Biomedical Science – ISCB from the State University of Ceará. Between 2017-2020.

Methodology: The study was performed using as subjects 2-month-old male wistar rats, which initially were submitted to 2-week adaptation training. Later the animals were separated in two distinct groups, control (C) and trained (T), where only T performed a single session of strenuous exercise, while C were not submitted to this treatment.  The applied exercise protocol consisted in a running training in treadmill with speed constant increasing until the animal exhaustion which was measured by the animal refusal to keep running. After 24h, soleus muscle was desiccated and submitted to RNAseq sequencing protocols. Obtained data were statistically evaluated in R environment with EBSeq package, to characterize and predict the miRNAs and their targets were used bioinformatics tools Gene Cards, mi RBase enrichR and KEGG.

Results: Two differentially expressed miRNAs were found, mir145 and mir 186, both with downregulated expression pattern in strenuous exercise. These miRNAs have a total of 1201 predicted target genes, 67 were repeated and mostly correlate to cardiovascular disease pathways, between those 5 were differentially expressed as down-regulated.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the findings suggest that mir186 and mir145 down-regulation profile mediated by strenuous exercise implicates in the non-alteration of the target genes expression profile, and consequently did not mediate alterations in the pathways they are evolved, which are mainly related to signaling and disorders.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Performance of N Terminal-Pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide (NT-ProBNP) in the Assessment of Dyspnea in Heart Failure and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in a Group of Patients in Sub–Saharan Africa (SSA): An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study

Vicky Ama Moor, Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Manuela Eko, Daryl N. Tcheutchoua, Mbono Samba, Jan Réné Nkeck, Christian Ouankou Ngongang, Virginie Poka, Batakeh Ba Agoons, Honoré Kemnang, Eric Yone Pefura, Alain Menanga

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 45-51
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i630275

Background: Heart failure (HF) and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are two conditions frequently responsible of dyspnea. The clinical distinction between these two etiologies is challenging in clinical practice, particularly in developing countries where access to imagery is limited. Thus, natriopeptides, secreted during the stretching of cardiomyocytes, could be a more accessible method for the etiological diagnosis of dyspnea.

Objective: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-pro BNP in the assessment of dyspnea during heart failure and COPD.

Methods: The population consisted of patients with dyspnea caused by heart failure according to Framingham criteria or COPD diagnosed according to GOLD criteria. The NT-pro BNP levels and left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed. The ROC curve and the Youden index was used to determine the diagnostic performance of the test and the threshold of significance was set at 0.05.

Results: Of the 45 subjects recruited, 32 had heart failure and 13 had COPD. The NT-pro BNP levels were higher in HF patients (3725.5 [651 – 9945] pg/ml) compared to the COPD patients (316 [32- 1307] pg/ml); p=0.02. The NT-pro BNP levels was correlated to dyspnea in both groups (r=0.75; p<0.001 in HF patients and r=0.91; p<0,001 in COPD patients). The diagnostic threshold obtained was 497 pg/ml with a sensitivity of 81%, a specificity of 69% and a Youden’s index of 0.5.

Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP is acceptable in distinguishing between heart failure and COPD.