Open Access Short Research Article

Bioactives and Antimicobial Potential of Processing by Products of Four Mango Varieties (Magifera indica Varieties Amelie, Kent, Keitt and Brooks) from the Poro Region (Ivory Coast)

Mabintou Diomande, Kouassi Hubert Konan, Yapo Thierry Monnet, Kouassi Armand Kanga, Jean Bedel Fagbohoun, Jaures Oscar Gbotognon, Eugène Jean Parfait Kouadio, Lucien Patrice Kouamé

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 19-28
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i530266

Aims: During the industrial processing of mango, considerable quantities of peel and seeds are rejected, which results in a significant economic loss for the manufacturer, as well as an impact on the environment. However, mango almond and peel flours present enormous nutritional and especially therapeutic potentialities. Thus, the objective of this work is to contribute to the valorization of the waste of 4 varieties of mango (Amelie, Kent, Keitt, Brooks) from north in Ivory Coast by the determination of their bioactive compounds in, order to be used in the pharmaceutical industry.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Technology, Nangui Abrogoua University, Abidjan 02, Ivory Coast. Between March 2019 to July 2021. 

Methodology: Phenolic compounds of the Mango almond and peel flours were extracted with ethanol. UV-VIS spectrophotometry was employed to further quantify the total phenolic, tannin and total flavonoid content. DPPH radical scavenging assay, 2.2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6- sulphonic acid (ABTS) scavenging test and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were used to determine antioxidant activity. As for phenolic acids, they were analysed by HPLC. Well diffusion method was used to determine antibacterial activity.

Results: The analysis of the bioactive compounds of these mango discards revealed that they are characterised by high contents of total polyphenols 39.67 ± 0.04 to 85.18 ± 0.01 mg/g in the peel and 22.86 ± 0.03 to 58.43 ± 0.00 mg/g in the almond, flavonoids 4.36 ± 0.03 to 20.43 ± 0.02 mg/g in peel and from 6.59 ± 0.01 to 26.72 ± 0.02 mg/g in almonds, tannins 5.04 ± 1.13 to 8.64 ± 0.76 mg/g in peel and from 6.58 ± 0.06 to 12.46 ± 0.11 in almonds. Antioxidant activity varies in peel and almond from 64.49 ± 2.56 to 96.40 ± 0.32 % and 89.16 ± 1.45 to 97.96 ± 0.25 % respectively for ABTS, from 59.51 ± 0.26 to 86, 27 ± 0.56% and 80.39 ± 0.56 to 87.21 ± 0.39% for DPPH inhibition and from 0.59 ± 0.0 to 0.72 ± 0.01 mg/g and from 0.81% to 0.92% mg/g for iron reduction by the FRAP method. As for the antimicrobial activity, very marked inhibition diameters were observed both with the peel extracts and in the almonds for different bacteria (B. ceurus, E. coli, ST. aureus, S. typhi, P. aeruginosa).

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the by-products of the four mango varieties are potential sources of bioactive compounds. These by-products could therefore be used in the pharmaceutical industry and diet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnostic Performance of Faecal Calprotectin among People with Chronic Inflammatory Diseases of the Bowel in Cameroon: A Pilot Study in Sub-Saharan Africa

Irina Lydia Sudeu Nitcheu, Thomas Djifack Tadongfack, Falmata Amazia, Melissa Guechoun Choundong, Marthe Pelagie Alogo, Paul Talla, Batakeh B. Agoons, Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i530264

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are relatively common in African countries. The use of faecal markers, Calprotectin in particular, is presently of considerable interest to IBD patients. The high faecal calprotectin level has a good diagnostic accuracy in discriminating intestinal organic and functional diseases and enables the selection of patients in need of other invasive diagnosis such as endoscopy.

Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of faecal calprotectin as a useful diagnostic tool for IBD patients in Cameroon.

Study design: This was a case control cross-sectional multicentre study conducted in major gastroenterology units of the towns of Yaoundé and Douala involving 64 participants grouped as 32 IBD positive subjects and 32 IBD negative subjects.

Methods: Stool sample collected from participants at various recruitment sites were collected, conditioned and transported to the CIAB laboratory for analysis using a direct ELISA method. The R software was used for data analysis.

Results: The calprotectin levels of IBD patients were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (P < .001.) The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.96 [95%CI: 0.92 – 1.00; P < .001]. A threshold value of 2.51µg/g was chosen to exclude the diagnosis of IBD with an 87.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity.  The CRP levels correlated with those of calprotectin (r꞊0.579, P ꞊ .005). Calprotectin concentrations became abnormally elevated in all UC patients with an Endoscopy Score greater than or equal to 6 (P = .001). Correlation between the endoscopy score for Crohn's disease and calprotectin concentration did not retain significance (ρ꞊0.800; P > .05).

Conclusion: Calprotectin dosage is a sensitive test for IBD, excludes unnecessary investigations and accurately predicts disease recurrence and response to treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Erythropoietin and the Role of Inflammation in Anaemia in Patients with Chronic Renal Living in Cote D’ivoire

Maxime Roméo Kouadio, Lydie Boyvin, Gnogbo Alexis Bahi, Valère Ultrich Tchokothe Tchako, Gervais Melaine M’Boh, Appolinaire Gnionsahé, Allico Joseph Djaman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 11-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i530265

Introduction: Anemia is one of the most common complications of kidney failure. The kidney is responsible for the production of erythropoietin, a key hormone in erythropoiesis. Insufficient production of erythropoietin due to impaired kidney functions and also inflammation could explain this anemia. This study aimed at contributing to a better understanding of the mechanisms of erythropoietin in anemia observed in kidney failure.

Methods: The study population consisted of 138 people: 92 with chronic renal failure (46 not on dialysis, 46 on hemodialysis) and 46 voluntaries as control without kidney failure. Serum concentrations of urea, creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), serum iron, ferritin and transferrin were determined using the Cobas C311 Hitachi machine. The erythropoietin assay was performed on the ELISA chain.

Results: Lower mean values ​​of EPO, increased CRP and decreased iron were observed in CKF patients (EPO: 5.66 ± 0.97 mIU / L; CRP: 45 ± 7.46 mg / l ; Iron: 12.46 ± 0.85 µmol / l), and patients under dialysis (EPO: 9 ± 0.51 mIU / L; CRP: 9 ± 2.66 mg / l; Iron: 10.07 ± 0.54 µmol / l) compared to controls (EPO: 18 ± 1.29 mIU / L; CRP: 2 ± 0.30 mg / l; Iron: 15.85 ± 0.56 µmol / l).

Conclusion: Anemia in chronic renal failure is thought to be due to an erythropoietin deficiency but also to an exacerbation of inflammation with a disruption of the iron status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Phytochemistry and Antioxidant Activity of Pterocarpus angolensis (Mubvamaropa) from Mupandawana

S. Zengeni, J. M. Chifamba, I. Mutingwende, T. Manyarara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 29-36
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i530267

The present study investigated the phytochemistry and antioxidant activity of Pterocarpus angolensis (Mubvamaropa) from Mupandawana. Pt. angolensis has numerous medicinal uses. The bark, sap, leaves and roots are all used to treat different ailments. The sap is used to stop nose bleeds, treatment of ulcers and kill ringworms. Several studies have supported the use of the tree’s sap to treat cataracts, malaria as well as skin inflammations. Pterocarpus angolensis bark was collected from Gutu, Masvingo province and authenticated by a plant taxonomist at the Zimbabwe National herbarium (Mr Chapano). The bark was cleaned using distilled water and oven dried at 40°C for 4 hours to constant weight. Size reduction was achieved using a Thomas-Wiley laboratory mill model with a 2 mm sieve mesh. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the ethanolic extract had more phyto-constituents than the water extract which only four phyto-constituents present all of which were weakly positive. DPPH scavenging activity was 95.11% at a concentration of 500 μg/mL bark extract, while that of the control, ascorbic acid, was 97.60%. Ascorbic acid had an IC50 value of 4.35 µg/mL while the bark extract had a value of 150.64 µg/mL.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation in Toxicity and Physicochemical Parameters of Cassava Pulp (Manihot esculenta) during Storage

Deffan Zranseu Ange Bénédicte, Yapi Jocelyn Constant, Deffan Kahndo Prudence, Masse Diomandé, Beugre Grah Avit Maxwell

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 37-45
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i530269

Background: A staple for about 800 million people in tropical countries, cassava contains a high content of hydrocyanic acid making it toxic.

Objective: This study was proposed to test the conservation effectiveness on tuber toxicity. Materials and Methods: Tests were carried out on the varieties commonly known as Bonoua and Yacé. The conservation parameters studied were: the level of hydrocyanic acid, moisture content and hardness. The cassava tubers were stored at room temperature. The samples for analysis were taken on the pulp every 24 hours.

Results: Results showed that hydrocyanic acid levels reached their minimum levels between 96 and 120 hours of storage with 5.87 ± 0.46 and 5.66 ± 0.50 mg/kg in Bonoua, then 9.53 ± 0.78 and 9.85 ± 0.93 mg/kg in IAC. Water levels are positively correlated with those of hydrocyanic acid in both cassava types. Proteins reach reveal in their maximum concentrations between 48 and 72 hours of storage (respectively to then drop. The ash and fat contents as well as the total carbohydrate contents generally decrease during storage. However, an increase is observed from 120 hours of storage, at the level of carbohydrate concentrations.

Conclusion: For a non-toxic cassava pulp, a storage period of at least 48 hours at the Bonoua and 96 hours at the IAC would be advisable with however a lower biochemical quality.