Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Antinutritional Characteristics of Ten Red Bean Cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Cameroon

Marlyne-Josephine Mananga, Kouandjoua Brice Didier, Kotue Taptue Charles, Bebbe Fadimatou, Djuikwo Nkonga Ruth, Mbassi Manga Gilbert, Kuagny Blaise, Djouhou Michelle, Fokou Elie, Kana Sop Marie

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i430259

Beans are nutritionally and economically important food crop in Cameroon. However, data on the nutritional value of the different red bean cultivars remain poorly known to consumers. The objective of this study is to characterize 10 red bean cultivars in order to determine theirs nutrients, minerals and antinutrients contents. Grains of raw and cooked beans were evaluated for proximate, mineral and antinutrients composition. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using the ANOVA and the Tukey test (p ≤ 0.05). The results of chemical analysis of the raw and cooked cultivar bean revealed moisture content ranging from 4.19 to 12.34%, protein from 10.56 to 46%,. lipids from 5.31 to 7.38%, ash from 1.93 to 4.61%, fiber from 2.42 to 7.97% and carbohydrates 38.30 to 68.85%. Different bean cultivars showed statistically significant differences in minerals. The most abundant minerals in the samples were potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) with contents ranging from 565.17 to 912.99 mg/100g dry matter (DM) and 78.5 to 933.85 mg/100g DM respectively. Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) contents ranged from 1.89 to 4.19 mg/100g DM and 2.10 to 5.15 mg/100g DM respectively. Antinutrients contents ranging from 0.14 to 1.00%, 2.86 to 8.82%, 0.07 to 0.18% and 0.26 to 1.22% respectively for tannins, phytates. oxalates and saponins after treatment. After soaking associated with cooking, red beans cultivars were found to contain the least minerals contents and that treatment significantly reduced (p<0.05) all the antinutrients evaluated. Red beans cultivars are potential nutrients rich food material for food formulation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Drug Utilization Pattern, Cost of Illness and Cost-Effective Analysis of Antihypertensive Drugs in a Tertiary Hospital- A Cross-Sectional Study

K. V. Ramanath, Brijin Thomas Biju, Imad Ahmed, Mandapati Veera Venkata Haritha, K. S. Kishore

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 15-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i430260

Background: Hypertension is a condition with a substantial public health burden and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. The increasing prevalence of hypertension requires the use of cost-effective treatment and effective management of a disease. Hence, this study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of antihypertension drugs in patients with hypertension and other co- morbidities.

Methods: The study was designed as prospective and interventional, with objectives to evaluate the cost of illness, prescribing patterns of different classes of antihypertensive drugs alone or in combination, and cost-effectiveness evaluation of other groups of antihypertensive drugs prescribed. Provided About 40 patients were with antihypertensive drugs of various classes whose health scores were calculated using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire and calculated the total cost of treatment. Also calculated Most common Prescribe antihypertensive medications and the cost-effectiveness of each drug.

Results: This study showed that 58% of patients received combination therapy, 42% received monotherapy. Metoprolol was most cost-effective, followed by Carvedilol, which was in the case of monotherapy. Concerning combination therapy, Amlodipine + Bisoprolol proved to be the most cost-effective. ARBs were the most commonly prescribed class of antihypertensive drugs.

Conclusion: The study provided significant improvement in the health score of patients concerning the cost-effective antihypertensive treatment, showing an effective reduction in BP/ Helped in the management of hypertension and helped reduce risk factors associated with various cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Datura Metel Leaves Extract on Blood Parameters and Lipid Profile Using Albino Rats as Model

F. O. Oyedeji, O. O. Ajewole, A. B. Fawehinmi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 24-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i430261

Datura metel is commonly found locally and it is readily available to the people, consequently, it is abused and deliberately used as poison. The aim of this study is to ascertain the effect of Datural metel through blood parameters and lipid profile when consumed through food intake using albino rat model. The leaves were extracted with ethanol and the phytochemical parameters determined. Different concentration of the extract were mixed with rat food and the food were fed to albino rats placed in four groups of five. The blood and lipid profile of rats were picked from each group determined at the end of week 1,2 and 3. Rats from each group was sacrificed and the blood was collected through cardiac puncture which was later analyzed for blood parameters and lipid profile. The results obtained from the first set of rats did not show any significant effect on the blood parameters and lipid profile, but the results obtained from subsequent sacrificed rats showed gradual increase in the values of the rate of haemoglobin (HB) 6.7 – 10G/DL, Red blood cells (RBC) 3.82 – 4.43 x 106µl and mean cell volume (MCV) 52.36 – 69.98FL. The results obtained for mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are irregular. There is gradual decrease in the results obtained for low density lipoproteins (LDL) 27.2 – 20.2 mg/dl and cholesterol 79 -71 mg/dl. This study suggests that the concentration of ethanolic extracts of Datura metel leaves have different active components that have diverse revamping effects on the blood parameters and lipid profile based on concentration of the extracts and duration of intake of the extract. This invariably portray that presence of Datura metel in food can enhance the quality of the food in the body and also maintain good cardiovascular wellbeing based on its concentration and timeline of consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation of the Phyto-constituents and the Antibacterial Activity of Burkea africana against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and E. faecalis

S. Zengeni, J. Chifamba, I. Mutingwende, T. Manyarara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i430262

Bacterial skin infections are common in the tropics and the emergence of resistant bacterial strains has complicated treatment outcomes especially in immune compromised patients. This study focused on determining the antibacterial activity and preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant, Burkea Africana, which has been used for decades to treat various ailments in Southern Africa. Phyto-constituent determination and antibacterial assay was carried out on the hydro-ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Burkea Africana. The Agar well diffusion method was used to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of both extracts. Activity was measured against P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and E. faecalis using ciprofloxacin as the standard. For both extracts, phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, tannins, saponins and carbohydrates. The 70% hydro-ethanolic extract however revealed more phyto-constituents including flavonoids and alkaloids. For both extracts antibacterial activity was comparable to the standard. The highest zone of inhibition recorded for the water extract was 22±0.4 mm at 500 mg/ml for E. coli while the standard, Ciprofloxacin had a zone of inhibition of 25±0.33 mm. The ethanolic extract showed higher antibacterial efficacy when compared to ciprofloxacin against S. aureus. The zone of inhibition for the 70% ethanolic extract was 25.4±0.50 mm and that of the standard was 27±0.48 mm. Antibacterial activity was generally higher in the ethanolic extract than the water extract. It is therefore concluded that B. africana exhibits antibacterial activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Assay of the Nutritional Composition and Antioxidant Effect of the Cotyledon and Pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum fruit

Precious Uchenna Ezeobi, Innocent Onyeze Igwilo, Uchechukwu Chibuzo Ogbodo, Josiah Ndukwe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i430263

Background: Chrysophyllum albidum has been widely consumed for its flesh part as a fruit snack and source of vitamins but also grossly under-utilized because of dearth of knowledge on nutritional and therapeutic potencies of other fruit parts. This study thus aimed to comparatively determine the nutritional, phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of the flesh and cotyledon of C. albidum.

Methods: Proximate and phytochemical contents were determined according to the methods of Association of Official Analytical Chemists (2000). Mineral concentrations were evaluated using Atom Analyzer according to the protocols of AOAC (2000). Antioxidant properties were assayed through the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging, reducing power and lipid peroxidation abilities according to the methods of Barros et al (2007).

Results: Findings indicated a higher percentage contents of ash (3.83 ± 0.38), moisture (13.86 ± 0.84), crude fiber (11.07 ± 2.72) and crude protein (7.44 ± 0.44) in the flesh than the cotyledon of C. albidum, which were insignificantly different (p > 0.05). On the other hand, crude fat (13.80 ± 2.60) and total carbohydrate (64.96 ± 2.77) were found to be more in the cotyledon than the flesh but also not significantly different (p > 0.05). The mineral analysis revealed a higher but insignificantly different (p > 0.05) concentrations of iron (2.31 ± 0.22), copper (1.23 ± 0.09), zinc (2.94 ± 0.12) and potassium (1.48 ± 0.09) in the flesh than the cotyledon whereas cobalt (3.09 ± 0.92), magnesium (21.13 ± 0.58), sodium (16.27 ± 0.62) and selenium (4.24 ± 0.28) were more in the cotyledon than the flesh although insignificantly different (p > 0.05). While the flesh was observed to significantly contain high total phenol values, the cotyledon showed more significant mean values for tannin, oxalate, saponin and β-carotene than the flesh. The in vitro DPPH free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition findings indicated higher antioxidant activities in the flesh than in the seed.

Conclusion: Conclusively, the flesh and seed fruit parts of C. albidum showed considerable and significant amounts of the parameters under study, which can be further exploited for their nutritional and pharmacological essence.