Open Access Original Research Article

Contraceptive Activity of Vitex doniana Stem Bark Methanol Extract in Female Albino Rats

Angela Nnenna Ukwuani-Kwaja, Ibrahim Sani, Abdulhamid Zubairu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i330254

Aims: The acceptability and accessibility of modern contraceptive drugs are limited especially in northern Nigeria. These contraceptives also have numerous side effects hence there is need to search for safe natural alternatives from medicinal plants. This research was aimed at evaluating the contraceptive effect of stem bark methanol extract of Vitex doniana in female albino rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Between August 2019 to July 2020.

Methodology: Vitex doniana stem bark was extracted with methanol and the extract was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity (LD50) of V. doniana stem bark extract was determined using up and down method and anti-fertility effect was evaluated via (anti-ovulation, anti-implantation and serum hormonal assay).

Results: The results for phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, glycoside, balsam and volatile oil. The LD50 of the extract was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg as no mortality or any sign of toxicity are recorded within 14 days. The anti-fertility studies, methanol stem bark extract of Vitex doniana showed anti-ovulation activity through alteration of estrous cycle, changes in the histology of ovarian corpus luteum and decreasing number of follicles of extract treatment groups compared to control. Serum hormonal assay showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in oestrogen and progesterone level respectively in the extract treated groups compared to control group. Also, anti-implantation effect was observed in drug treated group (levenogesterel) and group treated with 400 mg/kg of V. doniana stem bark as there was no evidence of conception.

Conclusion: The present study revealed that methanol stem bark extract of Vitex doniana is relatively nontoxic at acute dose and possess a moderate amount of antifertility agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Naja nigricollis (Elapidae) Venom on Some Vital Organs of Oryctolagus cuniculus

Obou Constantin Okou, Djako Sosthène Thierry Akré, Allali Eugène Koffi, Guy Childeric Bingo, Allico Joseph Djaman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 11-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i330255

The general objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Naja nigricollis venom on some vital organs of rabbits. To carry out this study, nine (9) rabbits including five (5) males and four (4) females were divided into two (2) control lots and one (1) experimental lot. Each control lot was composed of three (3) rabbits (males or females) while the experimental lot was comprised of two (2) males and one (1) female. The rabbits of the experimental lot were injected with Naja nigricollis venom for about 20 to 30 minutes and then after the determination of their biochemical and hematological parameters, were autopsied for the removal of organs such as heart, liver, kidneys and lungs. These organs were weighed and their appearance was studied. The results of this study showed that the heart and lungs of control male rabbits weighed more than those of females, whereas the liver and kidneys did not. Then, the cytotoxins of the Naja nigricollis venom were at the origin of gangrene which induced necrosis by an increase in their volume in a general way and degradation of the organs studied. Finally, the dose of venom injected (2 mg/Kg of body weight) could also cause hypotension, so favoring the formation of oedemas and consequently gangrene.

Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Antioxidant and Haematinic Properties of the Stem Bark of Theobroma cacao L. in Wistar Rats

B. O. Oluwatayo, T. A. Kolawole, C. C. Wali, O. A. Olayanju, A. E. J. Okwori

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 18-26
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i330256

Background: This study investigated the potential antioxidant effects of aqueous extract of the stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. in Wistar rats.

Methods: Twenty Wistar rats weighing between 126 g – 224 g were grouped randomly into 4groups of 5 rats each. Group 1 served as control and received water while groups 2, 3 and 4 rats were given 1000mg/kg, 3000mg/kg and 5000mg/kg b.wt of the extract respectively for 28days. On the 29th day, the rats were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for analysis of some haematological parameters, enzymatic and non- enzymatic antioxidant activities.

Results: The results obtained showed that there was significant increase (p<0.001) in SOD, Catalase activities and MDA levels in a dose dependent manner. The results also showed significant increase (p<0.001) in RBC Group 2, 3 and 4 rats when compared to the Group1. Significant increase was also observed in Hemoglobin (Hb) and Hematocrit (Hct) level in group 2 and 3 rats (p<0.001). Mean corpuscular volume was significantly increased in group 2 rats (p<0.001).

Conclusion: The findings from this study showed the antioxidant and hematinic potentials of the stem bark of Theobroma cacao L.The aqueous extract of the stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. has a potential antioxidative and hematinic effects in Wistar rats. This is largely due to its rich phytochemical and nutritive contents. Further research work will be needed to see the possible application of these properties in humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Short-term and Long-termUse of Lithium on Thyroid Hormones in Nepalese Patients with Bipolar Disorder

Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Mithileshwer Raut, Aseem Bhattarai, Eans Tara Tuladhar, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Saroj Prasad Ojha, Binod Kumar Yadav, Bharat Jha, Rojeet Shrestha

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i330257

Background: Lithium has been used for decades as mood-stabilizing agents in the management of bipolar disorder and other condition with a manic component. However, some studies have also reported varying degrees of thyroid abnormalities associated with lithium therapy and effect of such therapy on thyroid function is unclear in this part of world. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of long term use of lithium on thyroidfunctionin the individual with bipolar disorder receiving lithium therapy.

Methods: A total of 75 bipolar disorder patients (24 males, 51 females) who are under lithium therapy and equal number of control were recruited for this study. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was made by psychiatrist according to ICD-10-DCR guidelines and DSM-IV criteria. Serum fT3, fT4 and TSH were measured by enhanced chemiluminescence immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 20.0 version.

Results: The prevalence of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism were found significantly increased in lithium treated group (12% and 17%, respectively) which was further increased with duration of treatment. The mean fT3 and fT4 concentration is low in lithium treated group compared to control group.Butmean TSH level was found significantlyhigher in lithium treated group compared to control (9.67±12.47 vs. 3.41±3.69, p<0.005).

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that use of lithium therapy is associated with higher degree of primary hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism and female are more susceptible for the thyroid dysfunction associated with lithium therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Overview of the Proofreading Functions in Bacteria and in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronaviruses

Peramachi Palanivelu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 33-62
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i330258

Aim: To understand the structure-function relationship of the proofreading (PR) functions in eubacteria and viruses with special reference to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) and propose a plausible mechanism of action for PR exonucleases of SARS-CoVs.

Study Design: Bioinformatics, biochemical, site-directed mutagenesis (SDM), X-ray crystallographic data were used to study the structure-function relationships of the PR exonucleases from bacteria and CoVs.

Methodology: The protein sequences of the PR exonucleases of various DNA polymerases, and RNA polymerases of SARS, SARS-related and human CoVs (HCoVs) were obtained from PUBMED and SWISS-PROT databases. The advanced version of Clustal Omega was used for protein sequence analysis. Along with the conserved motifs identified by the bioinformatics analysis, the data already available by biochemical, SDM experiments and X-ray crystallographic analysis on these enzymes were used to arrive at the possible active amino acids in the PR exonucleases of these crucial enzymes.

Results:  A complete analysis of the active sites of the PR exonucleases from various bacteria and CoVs were done. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) analysis showed many conserved amino acids, small and large peptide regions among them. Based on the conserved motifs, the PR exonucleases are found to fit broadly into two superfamilies, viz. DEDD and polymerase-histidinol phosphatase (PHP) superfamilies. The bacterial DNA polymerases I and II, RNase D, RNase T and ε-subunit of DNA polymerases III belong to the DEDD superfamily. The PR enzymes from SARS, SARS-related CoVs and other HCoVs also essentially belong to the DEDD superfamily. The DEDD superfamily either uses an invariant Tyr or a His as proton acceptor during catalysis. Depending on the proton acceptor, they are further classified into DEDHD and DEDYD subfamilies. RNase T, ε-subunit of DNA polymerases III and the SARS, SARS-related CoVs and other HCoVs belong to DEDHD subfamily.  However, the SARS, SARS-related CoVs and other HCoVs showed additional zinc finger motifs (ZFMs) in their active sites. DNA polymerases I, II and RNase D belong to DEDYD subfamily. The bacterial DNA polymerases X, YcdX phosphoesterases and the co-editing exonuclease of DNA polymerases III belong to the PHP superfamily. Based on the MSA, X-ray crystallographic analyses and SDM experiments, the proposed active-site proton acceptor is Tyr/His in DEDDY/H subfamilies and His in PHP superfamily of PR exonucleases. 

Conclusions:   Based on the similarities of active site amino acids/motifs, it may be concluded that the DEDD and PHP superfamilies of PR exonucleases should have evolved from a common ancestor but diverged very long ago. The biochemical properties of these enzymes, including the four conserved acidic amino acid residues in the catalytic core, suggest that the CoVs might have acquired the exonuclease function, possibly from a prokaryote. However, the presence of two zinc fingers in the PR active site of the SARS, SARS-related CoVs and other HCoVs sets their PR exonucleases apart from other homologues.