International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review,
Aims: The acceptability and accessibility of modern contraceptive drugs are limited especially in northern Nigeria. These contraceptives also have numerous side effects hence there is need to search for safe natural alternatives from medicinal plants. This research was aimed at evaluating the contraceptive effect of stem bark methanol extract of Vitex doniana in female albino rats.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Science, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Between August 2019 to July 2020.
Methodology: Vitex doniana stem bark was extracted with methanol and the extract was subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity (LD50) of V. doniana stem bark extract was determined using up and down method and anti-fertility effect was evaluated via (anti-ovulation, anti-implantation and serum hormonal assay).
Results: The results for phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, glycoside, balsam and volatile oil. The LD50 of the extract was estimated to be greater than 5000 mg/kg as no mortality or any sign of toxicity are recorded within 14 days. The anti-fertility studies, methanol stem bark extract of Vitex doniana showed anti-ovulation activity through alteration of estrous cycle, changes in the histology of ovarian corpus luteum and decreasing number of follicles of extract treatment groups compared to control. Serum hormonal assay showed significant decrease (P<0.05) in oestrogen and progesterone level respectively in the extract treated groups compared to control group. Also, anti-implantation effect was observed in drug treated group (levenogesterel) and group treated with 400 mg/kg of V. doniana stem bark as there was no evidence of conception.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that methanol stem bark extract of Vitex doniana is relatively nontoxic at acute dose and possess a moderate amount of antifertility agent.