Open Access Minireview Article

Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Pericopsis laxiflora (Baker) Meeuwen (Leguminosae) – A Review

Frederick Sarfo-Antwi, Christopher Larbie, Benjamin Obukowho Emikpe, Regina Appiah–Opong

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i230248

Pericopsis laxiflora (Family Leguminosae) is a medicinal plant that is ubiquitous especially in the tropical and savannah regions. There are many reports on folkloric and traditional medicinal uses that include haemorrhoids, rheumatism, abdominal pain treatment, diarrhoea, and dysentery, fever, skin diseases and jaundice. Peer-reviewed articles were gathered by consulting the databases of Scopus, Medline, Web of Science, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Phytochemical investigations have revealed many bioactive compounds such as β-carboline derivative and tryptamine derivative. The plant has been examined on the basis of the in vitro, in vivo or clinical evaluations and shown to possess major pharmacological activities. These include anti-trypanosomal, antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti-malarial activities. In the present review, an attempt has been made to congregate the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological studies performed on Pericopsis laxiflora. Comprehensive safety and efficacy studies must be conducted on the plant. Generally, there are knowledge gaps that must be filled. Thus this review is intended for practitioners and researchers in the fields of ethnopharmacology, natural product chemistry and drug discovery related research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ameliorative effect of Ethanol Extract of Annona Muricata Leaves in Sodium Arsenite Induced- Toxicity in Male Wistar Rats

Adegboyega A. M., Odunola O. A., Akinwumi K. A., Babalola O., Akinwande A.

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 8-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i230249

Ingestion of arsenic, a known contaminant in drinking water causes cancer at multiple tissues and there is no cure. Consumption of arsenic contaminated water has been implicated metalloid-induced carcinogenesis. Research is therefore directed at chemoprevention using medicinal herbs for the management of arsenicosis. In this study hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Annona muricata (AM) leaves was assessed against sodium arsenite (SA) induced hepatic injury in albino rats. The animals were pre-treated with either 250 or 500mg/kg body weight of rat before exposure to SA. SA was dissolved in distilled water and administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight on the 7th, 14th and 21st day of the experiment. SA was observed to induce a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase activities (ALP). However, pretreatments of rats with various doses of AM significantly (P<0.005) reduced serum enzyme levels to near normal against SA treated rats. Furthermore, histopathological observations revealed that treatment with AM extract protected the animals from SA induced liver damage. The results indicated that the leaves of Annona muricata possess hepatoprotective activity on SA induced hepatic injury in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study on Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Achyranthes aspera Whole Plant

Nayan Manandhar, Kuber Bajgain, Astha Neupane

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 16-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i230251

This study aims to establish qualitative as well as quantitative phytochemical profiles and determine the free radical scavenging activity of phytochemical constituents of the entire plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. The extraction of dried plant material was carried out by cold maceration with    methanol followed by partitioning with ethyl acetate. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant was carried out by performing various chemical tests. Phenolic and flavonoid contents were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and Aluminum chloride methods, respectively.  Antioxidant activity was studied using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method.  The result of study revealed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, phytosterols, tannins, saponins, phenolic compounds, and carbohydrates. Total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, and antioxidant activity of the extract were found as 209.007 µg GA/mg, 17.59 µg QE/mg, and 25.12% (100 µg/mL), respectively. The study showed that plant could be a source of antioxidant compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Analysis of Palm Kernel Oil Extracts from Traditional Varieties in the West Region of Côte d'Ivoire

Niamketchi Gilles Léonce, Adama Coulibaly, Fofana Ibrahim, Sidibé Daouda, Kouamé Désiré, Chatigre Kouamé, Biego Henri Marius

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i230252

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties of palm kernel oil extracted from traditional varieties in the Mountain district, West region of Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: Palm kernels were collected from women crude palm oil producers in three departments of the western part of Cote d'Ivoire. In each department, 50 kg of palm kernel were purchased per supplier.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out June to September 2017.The collected almonds of palm kernels were carried out at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences Laboratory of the Félix Houphouët-Boigny University, Abidjan.

Methodology: The palm kernel oils were extracted by maceration and their physicochemical properties were determinate using standard methods.

Results: The results obtained show that the values for the physicochemical parameters of palm kernel oils from the three departments were similar and fell in those of the standards of Codex Alimentarius 2019. However, physicochemical parameters statistically vary (P<0.05) between the departments. The yields of oils extracted fluctuated between 39.64 ± 2.14 % and 52.26 ± 1.16 %. The refractive index ranges between 1.453 ± 0.01 and 1.454 ± 0.002. The relative density varies between 0.90 and 0.91. The level of insoluble impurities ranged from 0.06 to 0.09 %. The moisture and volatile matter content varied between 0.62 ± 0.05 to 1.94 ± 0.07 %. The acid value and free fat acid percentage varies from 6.37 ± 0.65 to 8.54 ± 0.57 mg KOH/g and 3.20 ± 0.31 to 4.29 ± 0.28 %, the saponification value ranges between 216.02 ± 8.96 mg KOH/g and 248.16 ± 2.40 mgKOH/g, iodine value varies from 17.52 ± 0.43and 19.05 ± 0.95 g of iodine per 100 g of fat and peroxide value range between 6.02 ± 1.13 to 8.38 ± 1.00meq O2 kg of fat. The study of the lipid composition of these fats showed significant presence of fatty acid and unsaponifiable. The major fatty acids are lauric acid (50.50 - 51.00 %), myristic acid (18.35 - 18.80 %) and oleic acid (12.80 - 13.92 %).

Conclusion: Given the results, palm kernel oils from the three departments exhibited good physicochemical properties, a clear indication that palm kernel oil could be used as edible and non-edible products in many homes and at various levels of industries in Côte d'Ivoire. There is limited information available about palm kernel oil from the western region of Côte d'Ivoire now and this study systematically researched on it, which can provide useful information for Ivorian oil palm industry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical and Biological Studies on the Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.) on Hyperglycemic Rats

Eman, A. Yousef, Esmail G. Boriy, Lamiaa, M. Lotfy

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 32-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i230253

The aim this investigate was to see if the medicine goldenberry fruits (Physalis peruviana L.) could help lower blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The results of the chemical composition of goldenberry fruits were found to be a high source of antioxidants and which contain a high level of hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic such as phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid and ꞵ-carotenoid. The results showed that dried goldenberry fruits powder could be added to replace up to 5 and 10 % of hyperglycemic -diet respectively. Experimental hyperglycemic rats were fed for six weeks on diet contain dried goldenberry at extent 5% or 10% except normal control (G1) was fed on basal diet. Hyperglycemic rats fed on diets substituted in a part with 5% and10 % dried goldenberry the results showed that supplementing the hyperglycemic-producing diets with the additive goldenberry had significant decrease in serum glucose, lipid profile (cholesterols, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein LDL and very low density lipoprotein vLDL-cholesterol). Meanwhile, high density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol increased with all treatments, significant reduction in alanine aminotransferase ALT, aspartate aminotransferase AST, alkaline phosphatase ALP, and total bilirubin values, in respect to positive control were also observed.