Open Access Short Research Article

GC-MS Analysis of Spondias mombin (Linn) Methanol Leaf Extract

S. C. Okereke, O. V. Ikpeazu, C. J. Nwaogwugwu, A. S. Ezekwe, C. I. Nosiri, P. O. Ukogu, Duru Michael Osita, Akara Emmanuel

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130240

The bioactive components of Spondias mombin leaf have been evaluated using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). The plant were collected washed, shade dried and milled and the methanol extract of the leaf plant were prepared by soxhlet extract method. The methanol extract were analyzed for the identification of phytochemical compounds presenting the Spondias mombin plant leaf using GC/MS methods. Result of the GC-MS analysis of Spondias mombin leaf extract leads to the identification of 8 compounds. The identification of phytochemicals was based on the Molecular Weight, molecular formula, RT (Retention Time) and peak area % (concentration). These peaks indicated the presence of eight bioactive compounds in the extract. The names, molecular formular, percentage composition and molecular masses of these compounds are shown in Table 1. The 8 bioactive compounds are as follows; 9- oxononanoic acid,3-isopropoxy, 1,1,15,5,5 hexamethyl-3- trimethylsioxytrosiloxane (C12H34O4Si4) ,1,4-methanocycloocta(d)pyridazine, 1α4α4aα10α)(C13H2ON2),Hexasiloxane 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11-dodeca methyl,1,4 methanocycloocta (d) pyridazine 1,4,4a,5,6,9,10,10a- octalydro 11,11-dimethyl-(1α,4α4aα10α), Hexasiloxane, 1,1,3,3,5,5,7,7,9,9,11,11 dodecamethyl, 3- isopropoxy-1,1,1,5,5,5 hexamethyl-3-(trimethylsiloxy) trisiloxane C12H34O4Si4 and 1,1,1,3,5,5,5- Heptamethyltrisiloxane(C7H22O2Si3). It is concluded that these bioactive component are known to exhibit medicinal value as well as pharmacological activities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Larvicidal Efficacy and GC-MS Analysis of Hyptis suaveolens Leaf Extracts against Anopheles Species

Y. D. Dakum, C. N. Amajoh, A. Ombugadu, G. Istifanus, F. Agwom, S. T. Joseph, I. R. Jwanse, P. M. Lapang, S. W. Kopdorah, D. D. Pam

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 8-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130241

Mosquitoes are the most important group of insects in terms of public health importance, which transmit serious human diseases. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides to control these mosquitoes causes development of resistance in vector species, and an adverse effect on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Therefore, the use of active toxic agents from plant extracts as alternative mosquito control strategy cannot be over emphasized, as these are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show target - specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of H. suaveolens against the fourth instars larvae of Anopheles species. Standard WHO protocols was adopted for the larvicidal bioassay. Larvicidal activity was evaluated at concentrations of 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/L. The larval mortality was observed after 24 and 48hours bioassay. The results are mean of three replicates and the mortalities recorded were subjected to chi-square test and probit analysis to determine median lethal concentrations (LC50). TheGC-MS analysis ofthe methanolic leaf extract of the plantrevealed the presence of twelve compounds on the chromatogram. Among the major compounds areOleic Acid (33.33%), Octadecanoic acid (13.52%), 1,3-Cyclohexadiene-1-methanol,alpha.,2,6,6-(10.42%), 1,3-Cyclopentanediol, trans (9.60%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (9.01%) and 4-Hepten-3-one, 4-methyl (7.0%).The phytochemical screening of the aqueous and methanol leaf extracts of the plant revealed the presence of Tannins, Terpenoids, Flavonoids, Steroids, Carbohydrates, Cardiac glycoside and resins. The LC50 values estimated were 316.22mg/Lfor methanol extract and 323.59 mg/L for aqueous extract. The differences between the two extracts were however not significantly different at P>0.05. The findings also revealed that mortality was concentration dependent and both extracts showed promising larvicidal activity against Anopheles species larvae. Therefore, the crude leaf extract of the plant is recommended to be used as alternative to synthetic larvicides and further research is needed to test the activity of the plant on non-target organisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Diagnostic Value of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Matrix Metalloproteinases in Atherosclerosis

Alaa Etaiwi, Enayat Hashem, Mohammed Ajabnoor, Nabil Al–Ama

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 20-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130242

Background and Aim: Atherosclerosis is a chronic systematic disease where lesion (plaque) develops results in activation of inflammatory reaction that leads to arterial obstruction. Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause for many cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which were estimated with 42 percent of total death in Saudi Arabia while Coronary artery diseases (CAD) accounted for 35 percent of total chronic diseases death in Saudi Arabia by 2008. Risk factors that attribute in progression of atherosclerotic lesion and subsequent complications are smoking, high Low Density Lipoprotein –Cholesterol (LDL-C), high blood pressure, obesity and alcohol.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 20 healthy individuals as a control group, 15 patients with stable angina, 15 patients with recent myocardial infraction (MI) and 15 patient 24-hours post MI. All subjects were males with age 45±65 years and underwent exclusion/inclusion criteria. COX-2, MMPs levels were quantitatively measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: There is insignificant differences in both COX-2 and MMP-2 levels among studied groups (P = 0.450 and 0.246 respectively) .On other hand, MMP-9 demonstrate a significant elevation in its level in studied groups (P = 0.014): its level significantly increase in stable angina (31.474 ± 12.188 ng/ml) compared to both control (9.920 ± 0.075 ng/ml) and Post MI groups (16.012 ± 13.852 ng/ml) (P = 0.001 and 0.004 respectively) and significantly increase in MI group (26.020 ± 14.792 ng/ml) when compared to both control (P = 0.006) and post MI (P = 0.038) groups.

Conclusion: We can conclude that both COX-2 and MMP-2 cannot be used as markers for diagnosis of stable angina or MI. While MMP-9 as it showed significant elevation in its level in MI and then decrease in post MI, it can be considered as a good marker for confirming the diagnosis of MI and post MI stage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Interferon-γ, Interleukin 1-β and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α levels and Their Association with Lipid and Glycaemic Profiles in Diabetic Mice

Ahmed J. Milebary, Mohamed A. Ajabnoor, Khalid H. Bakheit

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 31-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130243

The cytokines IFN-γ, interleukin IL-1β, and TNF-α each up regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and are therefore considered as inflammatory markers. The present study aimed to measure the serum levels of IFN-γ, interleukin IL-1β, and TNF-α in mice after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin and to correlate their levels to lipid and glycaemic profiles. The study included 40 Swiss Albino mice (20 males and 20 females), half of each male and female groups were made diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After 48 hours, the serum levels of INF-γ, IL1-β as well as TNF-α were measured with ELISA and their levels were correlated to lipid and glycaemic profiles. The levels of the cytokines, IFN-γ, IL1-β and TNF-α were measured and correlated to lipid profile, blood glucose and insulin. The serum levels of the three studied cytokines, IFN-γ, IL 1-β and TNF-α were statistically significantly higher among diabetic mice compared to the control group. Diabetic male mice (M-STZ mice) group showed significantly higher lipid profile compared to the control group (M-control). Cholesterol level was significantly higher among female control (F-control) compared to the M-control group. Cholesterol level was significantly higher among diabetic female mice (F-STZ mice) compared to the F-Control group. Regarding IFN-γ, IL 1-β and TNF-α levels, there were significant linear correlations with the glycemic profile (Glucose, insulin) reflected as positive correlation with blood glucose level and negative correlation with insulin level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mango Peels and Kernels from Selected Varieties of Côte d’ivoire are Potential Sources of Antioxidative Bioactive Compounds

Gisèle Y. Koua, Lessoy T. Zoue, Edwige Akoa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 41-50
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130244

Aims: This study aimed to quantify the bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of mango peels and kernels from two main varieties (Kent, Keitt) cultivated in Côte d’Ivoire.

Study Design: Processing of mango varieties, determination of bioactive compounds content of mango peels and kernels, evaluation of antioxidant activity of mango peels and kernels.

Place and Duration of Study: Felix Houphouet-Boigny University, Biotechnology Laboratory (March to September 2019).

Methodology: Ripe mango (Mangifera indica L) fruits from Kent and Keitt varieties were processed to obtain peels and kernels powders. Methanolic extracts of peels and kernels were used to determine the content of phenolics, flavonoids and tanins while hexanic extracts were used to determine the content of carotenoids and phytosterols. DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power tests were used to evaluate antioxidant activity of peels and kernels.

Results: Total phenolics content of kernels of Kent (4371.22 ± 24.98 mg/100g dw) and Keitt (4037.93 ± 20.43 mg/100g dw) were higher (P ˂ 0.05) than those of peels from the two varieties (2564.37 – 3082.07 mg/100g dw). The values for carotenoids content of peels varied from 37.53 to 57.74 μg/g dw while those of kernels varied from 1.48 to 3.46 μg/g dw. Based on DPPH test The IC50 values ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/mL with the highest antioxidant activity reported for kernels from Kent variety. The absorbance at 700 nm was found to be 0.4 for kernel of Keitt variety and 0.3 for ascorbic acid at a dose level of 0.03 mg/mL.

Conclusion: Peels and kernels from Kent and Keitt varieties are potential sources of bioactive compounds especially phenolics, tanins, carotenoids and phytosterols. These valuable bioactive compounds in mango by-products may have greater application in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Purification and Interaction of β-amylase from Dioscorea alata (Water Yam) with Epicatechin

M. A. Fadunsin, O. A. T. Ebuehi, I. S. Akande, A. O. Kolawole

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 51-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130245

β-amylase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the α-1,4-glucan bonds from the non-reducing ends of starch and other carbohydrate polymers reducing it to maltose units. Maltose has much application with food processing and pharmaceutical industries. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity with a monomeric molecular weight of 30.1 kDa based on SDS-PAGE. The binding Constant (Ka), Kd ΔH, ΔS and ΔG values were 1.53´103Lmol-1 ,3.12x10-4Lmol-1, 19.35kJmol-1, 56.67Jmol-1K-1, and -18.17kJmol-1 respectively. The binding profile of β-amylase with epicatechin was spontaneous with a stoichiometric ratio of 2:1. Hydrophobic bonding played a major role in stabilizing the β-amylase-ligand complex. The mode of reaction was by static quenching. It further dictates that the binding reaction is entropy driven. The inhibitory effect of this plant polyphenols on β-Amylase might contribute to the regulation of β-Amylase activity in plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Change in Physicochemical Parameters during Traditional Processing of Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) into Attiéké (Cassava semolina)

Fagbohoun Jean Bedel, Ekissi Elvis Serge Gbocho, Yapi Jocelyn Constant, Kouame Lucien Patrice

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 61-68
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130246

Attieke has become one of the most consumed foodstuffs and very popular among the populations of Côte d'Ivoire. It is a steamed cassava semolina with a long transformation process involving different fermentation times. Physicochemical and biochemical analyses have shown that attiéké has many nutritional potentials. Physicochemical parameters (pH, lactic and acetic acids, ethanol, starch, sugars (total and reducing) and vitamin C) were analysed during the process of transforming cassava (Manihot esculenta C.) into attieke. Moisture levels ranged from 61.5% (fresh pulp) to 45% (Attieke). The pH of the fresh cassava (6.1) decreases and reaches 4.7 on the third day of fermentation while that of the attiéké is 5. The acetic (0.48%) and lactic (0.72%) acid contents increase and are respectively 2.40 and 3.60% in the attieke. The ethanol content, which does not exist in the fresh pulp, appears during the fermentation and then decreases from 0.86% (24 hours of fermentation) to 2.40 (attieke). The starch content of cassava pulp decreased from 41.1 (fresh pulp) to 39.5% (fresh Attieke). The vitamin C content of the fresh pulp (69mg/100g) decreases and represents only 1 mg/100g in the fresh attieke.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characterization and Effect of Thermal Treatments on the Enzymatic Browning Inhibition of Violet Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) Cultivated in Daloa (Côte d’Ivoire)

Yapi Jocelyn Constant, Deffan Zranseu Ange Bénédicte, Fagbohoun Jean Bedel, Kouame Lucien Patrice

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 69-78
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2021/v30i130247

Background: The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables, has been involved in the undesirable brown discolouration of food products that resulted in negative effects on colour, taste, and nutritional value. This is a generally undesired process and needs to be prevented in food technology.

Objective: The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of chemical and thermal treatments on browning inhibition of eggplant fruit (Solanum melongena L.).

Materials and Methods: A screening of PPOs activities from eggplant was carried out. The physicochemical characteristics and thermal stability of main PPOs activities were determined in order to develop methods of anti-browning.

Results: Dopamine oxidase and pyrocatechol oxidase activities were the most active main eggplant fruit PPO activities. Maximal PPO activity was found at 30°C, pH 7.0 for dopamine and 25°C, pH 6.6 for pyrocatechol. The enzymes were stable and retained almost all of their catalytic activity at their optimum temperature (30 and 25°C) for 120 min and their pH stability was in the range of 5.0 - 7.0. Polyphenol oxidases (dopamine oxidase and pyrocatechol oxidase) remained their full activity in the presence of ion Na+, Cu2+, Pb2+ (1 mM) but were inhibited strongly by the ion Fe2+ and Pb2+ (5 mM). On the other hand, the ion K+, Ba2+ and chemical agents, EDTA, citric acid have virtually no effect on dopamine oxidase and pyrocatechol oxidase activities. Energy for inactivation (Ea) obtained using dopamine and pyrocatechol were 30.8 kJ/mol and 7.1 kJ/mol from respective substrates.

Conclusion: Ascorbic acid was a better inhibitor where 82.32% of PPOs inhibition was achieved. At 65°C, their D-values ranged from 44.72 to 72.72 min. Hence, heat treatment at 65°C for 30 min reduced browning of eggplant fruit. These data regarding the properties of PPO should enhance understanding of the browning reaction in eggplant and lead to the development of techniques for controlling this undesirable process.