Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effects of Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extracts of Secamone afzelii (Asclepiadaceae) Leaves on Liver Transaminases, Serum Vitamin D and Zinc Levels against Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4)- Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

Koné Djoudori Serge, Gnahoue Goueh, Djyh Bernard Nazaire, Bamba Abou, Yapi Houphouet Félix

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830207

Purpose: This study was carried out to evaluate effect of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii leaves on Liver transaminases, serum vitamin D and Zinc levels in hepatotocixity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats.

Methods: The experiment was performed on 7 groups of 6 rats by the method of Mekky and collaborators. Rats were pre-treated with aqueous, hydroethanolic extracts Secamone afzelii (100 and 200 mg/kg) and Silymarin (SIL) an hepatoprotective reference prior to CCl4. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the intraperitoneal injection of Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. Hepatotoxicity implied a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) by hepatocyte alteration rate. The parameters evaluated in the study were alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), vitamin D and Zinc in serum. Vitamin D and Zinc levels in serum were respectively determined by HPLC analysis and Atomic absorption method.

Results: Carbon tetrachloride injection to rats every 2 days showed a significant rise of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and a significant lowering of vitamin D and zinc levels in serum compared to normal. However, pre-treatments with aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts of Secamone afzelii caused a significant decrease of Liver transaminases (ALT and AST) and restored vitamin D and zinc levels in serum of animals (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01) compared to rats treated with CCl4 only (Negative control). Moreover, hydroethanolic extract (200 mg/kg) and Silymarin both reduced very well carbon tetrachloride effects by protecting Liver.

Conclusion: This study reveals that Secamone afzelii leaves extracts (aqueous and hydroethanolic) possess protective properties of the Liver. It also shows a significant association between low serum vitamin D and zinc levels and hepatotoxicity. The most active extract is Hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg which can be used for preventives purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

In silico Anti-malaria Activity of Quinolone Compounds against Plasmodium falciparum Dihydrofolate Reductase (pfDHFR)

Toheeb A. Balogun, Damilola A. Omoboyowa, Oluwatosin A. Saibu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830208

Chemotherapy remains the kernel of malaria control and the available antimalarial drugs are not only expensive but also parade heterogeneous levels of toxicity and may invoke poor compliance in patients. The present study focuses on the screening of quinolone compounds against Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfDHFR) for anti-malarial potential using Glide (Schrodinger maestro 2017-1). Computational tool using Glide was employed to investigate the therapeutic relevance of six (6) quinolone derivatives retrieved from PUBCHEM    via molecular docking against pfDHFR retrieved from protein data base. The results showed that, Lascufloxacin and moxifloxacin bind with higher affinity and lower free energy with catalytic domain of pfDHFR with glide score of -6.597 and -5.653 respectively compared to standard ligand (quinine) with glide score of -3.728. Lascufloxacin interacted with amino acid residue of the catalytic domain (SER 511, ARG 510, GLU 382) as evaluated by energy decomposition per residue lascufloxacin-pfDHFRcomplex. The results from this investigation, thus proposed quinolone derivatives as hit lead drug candidates which may be consider as potential inhibitor of pfDHFR.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phenolic Content, Antioxidant Activity, 15-Lipoxygenase and Lipid Peroxidase Inhibitory Effects of two Medicinal Plants from Burkina Faso: Acacia macrostachya Reich. Ex Benth (Mimosaceae) and Lepidagathis anobrya NEES (Acanthaceae)

Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, W. L. M. Esther B. Kabré, Mariam N. Traoré, Tata K. Traoré, Nouhoun Nignan, Noufou Ouédraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830209

Acacia macrostachya (Mimosaceae) and Lepidagathis anobrya (Acanthaceae) are two medicinal plants used in Burkina Faso folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the phenolic content, the antioxidant, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidaseinhibitory effects of Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya.The experimental results revealed that Acacia mascrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya have respective total phenolic contents  varies from 240.13 ± 0.44 and 30.88 ± 0.30 mg GAE / 100 mg extract; and total flavonoids contents of 2.30 ± 0.002 and 4.24 ± 0.28 QE / 100 mg of extract. The two plants demonstrated anti-free radicals (ABTS) capacities of 0.06 and 0.14 TEAC while the FRAP reducing power of 2.24 ± 0.08 and 4.43 ± 0.12 mmol AAE per 100 mg respectively. Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya showed significant inhibitory effect on lipid oxidation with the inhibition percentage values of 55.45 ± 1.48 and 66.36 ± 0.65 respectively. In the 15-lipoxygenase inhibition, Acacia macrostachya demonstrated very important inhibitory effect with the IC50 value of 1.32 ± 0.16 while the effect of Lepidagathis anobrya is very moderate.The results of this work demonstrated the interest of Acacia macrostachya and Lepidagathis anobrya in the management of inflammatory diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation and Hypolipidaemic Activity of Phenylquinoline, and Narceine Isolated from Ficus polita Leaf

A. Nasir, M. S. Sule, A. J. Alhassan, M. K. Atiku, Y. Y. Muhammad, A. Idi, I. U. Muhammad, A. I. Yaradua, K. I. Matazu, M. B. Isah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 42-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830211

Aim: To evaluate hypolipidaemic potentials of column chromatography fractions (F1 to F6) of the chloroform leaf extract of Ficus polita and to detect the bioactive compounds present in the most active fraction using spectroscopic techniques.

Study Design:  Fourty-five (45) wistar rats were grouped into nine groups of five rats each: normal control, hyperlipidaemic control, hyperlipidaemic administered with standard drug control/ atorvastatin (10 mg/kg body weight), and hyperlipidaemic administered groups administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of column chromatography fractions (F1, F2, F3, F4, F5, and F6) for a period of two weeks.

Place and Duration of Study:  Department of Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria, from May 2018 to April 2019.

Methodology: Chloroform leaf extract of F. polita was fractionated by using column chromatography, and the resulting fractions were pooled, based on their retention factor (Rf), into six (6) fractions by using analytical thin layer chromatography. The resulting six (6) fractions were screened for hypolipidaemic activity. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were determined. The rats treated with the best fraction in terms hypolipidaemic activity (fraction 3) were screened for serum HMG Co A reductase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) activities, as well as troponin I level. Oxidative stress markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were determined in the heart tissue homogenate of the rats treated with fraction 3.

Results: Fraction 3 treated hyperlipidaemic group showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the levels of serum TC, TG, and LDL, but significant (p<0.05) increase in the level of serum HDL. Fraction 3 (F3) treated hyperlipidaemic groups showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in the activity of serum LDH and the level of troponin I, but significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of serum HMG Co A reductase. After high fat diet administration, the level of heart tissue antioxidant markers such as GSH, SOD and catalase were decreased whereas the level of heart tissue MDA was elevated. The level of these antioxidant markers were brought to normalcy by fraction 3 (F3). Histological studies of the heart corroborated the biochemical findings, and treatment with fraction 3 (F3) was found to be effective in restoring dietary-induced myocardiac toxicity in rats. FTIR and GCMS analyses were carried out for the detection of bioactive compound(s) in fraction 3 (F3), and the result revealed the presence of "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine.

Conclusion: The study concludes that; the hypolipidaemic property of the leaf of F. polita is mediated by the bioactive compounds "8-methoxy-4-phenylquinoline, and narceine." via their antioxidant properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Staining Interactions of Aqueous Extract of Skin Allium cepa (Red Onion) on Some Selected Histological Tissues

M. O. Mohammed, A. A. Hali, O. O. Okechi, A. T. Muhammad, R. I. Tsamiya, U. Abubakar, I. Mohammed, A. Umar, S. M. Sani, M. K. Dallatu, J. M. Bunza, H. Kabir, H. M. Tambuwal, A. Slisu, B. A. Bello, F. A. Dogondaji, N. Okorie, S. Y. Ma’aruf, D. Isah, A. A. Ngaski, N. A. Idris, A. S. Ajayi, M. Isah, M. Sirajo, A. Abdulazeez, H. Abullahi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 55-64
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830212

Introduction: Histological stains are biological dyes which colour tissue in order to aid optical differentiation of tissue component. Dyes are coloured substance which impact colour for material such as textile, cosmetic, food, drugs, rubber plastics, hair, fur and tissues. There are two types of dyes namely; natural dyes and synthetic dyes. Allium cepa is an imperative, evergreen plant, which belongs to the family Amaryllidaceace commonly called bulb onion.

Aim: This research work aimed at evaluating the staining capability of onion extract as counter stain when haematoxylin was used as primary stain.

Methods: Tissue blocks sections of liver and kidney organs were made from the Wistar rat. Serial sections labelled A to M were made from each block and stained with Harris haematoxylin. Section A was counterstained with eosin, as control. Different preparations of extracts of the onion skin were used to counter stain sections of kidney and liver tissues. Group B to Mwere kidney and liver tissues stained as follows: B, E, H and K (5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with ferric chloride, 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with potassium aluminium alum, and 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract without mordant, for 10 and 20 minutes). C, D, F, G, I, J, L and M (5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with ferric chloride, 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract with potassium aluminium alum and 5% aqueous and ethanolic extract without mordant for 10 and 20 minutes).

Results: The skin extract of Allium cepa stained the cytoplasm of cells and connective tissues in shades of reddish brown to yellowish brown. The study established the cytoplasmic counter-staining ability of the extract of Allium cepa.

Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that onion skin extract solution can be substituted for eosin due to its domestic availability, ease of preparation and above all, its good cytoplasm contrast with the nuclear stain.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proximate Composition and Anti-nutritive Content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius Leaves

H. M. Adamu, Paidayi Gabriel Bara, O. A. Ushie

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 65-73
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830213

The nutritional composition, mineral content as well as anti-nutritional of Tree spinach (Cnidoscolus aconitifolius) leaves were investigated using standard methods. The results of the investigation showed the presence of moisture to be 5.64±0.30%, ash- 9.27±0.16%, crude protein- 8.43±0.34%, crude lipid- 4.43±0.16%, crude fibre- 16.73±0.20%, carbohydrate- 55.50% and calorific value- 276.04%. The Mineral elements determined were calcium- 1.48±0.12 mg/100 g, phosphorus- 0.18±0.03 mg/100 g. Compounds or substances which acts to reduce nutrients intake, intake digestion, absorption and utilization and may cause adverse effects are referred to as anti-nutrients or anti-nutritional factors. The anti-nutritive content of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius was classified into three categories; fresh leaves, blanched leaves and cooked leaves which decreased significantly. The anti-nutritional content includes; oxalate- which decreased from 62.71±0.21 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 40.07±0.09 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 30.04±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Phytate- which decreased from 77.17±1.84 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 62.02±0.16 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 28.64±0.88 mg/100 g in cooked leaves. Hydrogen cyanide- decreased significantly from 171.22±0.44 mg/100 g in fresh leaves, 113.00±0.08 mg/100 g in blanched leaves and 0.00ab in cooked leaves. Boiling increased the saponin content to 220.30±0.47 mg/100 g in cooked leaves from 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in fresh leaves and 218.50±0.50 mg/100 g in blanched leaves. Tannins- decreased significantly from 18.30±0.16 mg/100 g in fresh leaves to 11.62±0.15 mg/100 g in blanched leaves to 7.86±0.05 mg/100 g in cooked leaves respectively. A Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), version 23 was the statistical tool used for the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). These results showed that this plant will be a good and rich source of nutrients if it is well processed to reduce its anti-nutritional content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Preeclampsia

Sneha Saha, Yanglem Ajitkumar Singh, Sangeeta Naorem, Racheal Sweet Marbaniang, Victoria Kshetrimayum, Tina Das, Potsangbam Jenny Devi, Medowelie Mathew

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 74-80
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830214

Aims: The aim of this study was to find the correlation between serum sodium and serum potassium with preeclampsia.

Study Design: This is a cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Conducted in Department of Biochemistry in collaboration with the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, (RIMS), Imphal (Manipur) from September 2016 to August 2018.

Methodology: Blood samples of 30 diagnosed patients of preeclampsia and above 18 years of age admitted in the obstetrics antenatal ward of RIMS, Imphal was taken. Samples were analysed for serum sodium and potassium by randox rx imola autoanalyser. The data were analyzed using statistical tools like Chi-square test through SPSS 21.0.

Results: Serum sodium levels were high in 63.34%of study group, low levels were seen in 3.33% followed by normal levels in 33.3%of study group. Serum potassium levels were low in 56.6%of study group, normal in 40% and high in 3.33% of study group. There was positive correlation between serum sodium and proteinuria which was statistically significant at P-value <0.01 and negative correlation was seen between serum potassium levels with proteinuria which was statistically significant at P-value 0.04.

Conclusion: In this study hypernatremia and hypokalaemia were associated with preeclampsia, and may have important causative role in this syndrome therefore constant monitoring of serum sodium and potassium level in pregnant women may help in early detection, management and prevention of preeclampsia.


Open Access Original Research Article

Oral Acute & Sub-Chronic Toxicity Assessment of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Simarouba glauca

Sammydavies E. Osagie-Eweka, Noghayin E. J. Orhue, Eric K. I. Omogbai, Fabian O. Amaechina

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 81-100
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830215

Traditional herbal medicine and their preparations have been widely used for thousands of years and are still in use in developing and developed countries owing to their medicinal values and their presumed relative safety. This belief that medicinal plants are not toxic or are with less side effect due to their natural origin is debatable; hence this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and (or) toxicity of Ethanol leaf extract of Simarouba glauca (EESG) on liver, kidney and heart functions of Wistar rats. The oral acute toxicity of EESG was evaluated in line with Lorke’s method. The sub-chronic toxicity of EESG was carried out according to the OECD guidelines with modification and using a total of twenty-four (24) male Wistar rats; divided into four groups of six rats each, following a two-week acclimatization. Test rats were orally administered EESG at doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight respectively daily for thirty (30) days, while the control was given only feed and water ad libitum. At the end of the experiment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed under chloroform anesthesia; relevant biochemical and histopathology analyses were carried out. The data obtained from the oral acute test indicate that the LD50 was above 5000 mg/kg and there was no death recorded. There were significant increases (P ˂ 0.05) in percentage (%) body weight of rats administered respective doses of EESG. There were significant reductions (P˂0.05) in mean liver: body weight ratio of rats administered EESG 500 and 2000 mg/kg respectively, significant reductions (P˂0.05) in mean kidney: body weight ratios of rats given EESG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg respectively; significant reductions (P˂0.05) in mean heart: body weight ratios of test rats administered EESG 2000 mg/kg; whereas others were not significantly different (P˃0.05) relative to their respective control. Plasma ALT and GGT activities of rats administered respective dose of EESG were significantly reduced (P˂0.05); plasma ALP activities were significantly elevated (P˂0.05) relative to the control after 30 days. There were no significant differences (P˃0.05) in plasma total proteins and albumin levels. Plasma total and unconjugated bilirubin of rats administered respective dose of EESG were not significantly different (P˃0.05); whereas, rats given EESG recorded significant reduction in plasma conjugated bilirubin. Plasma urea was significantly elevated (P˂0.05) in rats administered EESG 1000 and 2000 mg/kg respectively. Test rats given EESG 500 and 1000 mg/kg respectively recorded significant elevations in plasma creatinine and rats given EESG 2000 mg/kg recorded significant decrease in plasma creatinine levels; others were not significantly different relative to the control. Plasma chloride and potassium ion levels of rats administered respective doses of EESG were not significantly different (P˃0.05); significant reduction (P˂0.05) in plasma sodium ions concentration in all group compared to the control. Plasma calcium ion levels in all group were not significantly different (P˃0.05); whereas there were significant reductions (P˂0.05) in plasma bicarbonate ion levels relative to their respective controls. Although plasma ALP activity were significantly elevated, there were no elevations in specific liver function enzymes and no visible hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, the conspicuous elevations observed in plasma urea and creatinine levels do not exclusively indicate EESG-induced organ injury. Therefore, it is suggestive that EESG was not significantly toxic to the to the liver, kidney and heart respectively and may be administered at lower doses in further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Gas Flare on Some Clinical Enzyme Biomarkers of Eleme Residents in Rivers State, Nigeria

Tamuno-boma Odinga, Felix U. Igwe, Christine U. Gabriel-Brisibe, P. C. Dimkpa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 101-107
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830216

Background: Gas flaring, an environmental harmful practice, is prevalent in Eleme and most communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

Aim: This study explored the impact of gas flaring on some clinical enzyme biomarkers of Eleme residents who are constantly exposed to the flared gas.

Study Design/Place of Study: Volunteer subjects were randomly selected from representative groups resident in Eleme, an oil and gas producing and refining area, for over 15 years, while similar volunteer subjects resident in Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, a non-gas flaring community, served as the control.

Methodology: Blood samples were collected from the subjects and analyzed for selected clinical enzyme biomarkers including Creatine kinase (CK), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) using standard enzyme activity and Randox test kit methods.

Results: Results obtained revealed that CK levels for female Eleme subjects increased by 61.20% when compare with the female control subjects. This increase was statistically significant (p<0.05). The CK levels for Eleme male subjects also increased by 37.36% compared to control. However, this increase was not statistically significant (p<0.05). LDH increased by 23.21% in the male subjects and 18.58% in the female subjects compared to control, while AST increased by 42.11% in the male subject and 11.32% in the female subjects compared to control. The results suggest that there could be impending damage to organs for which an increase in the biomarkers-Creatine kinase, Lactate Dehydrogenase and Aspartate Aminotransferase suggest an ongoing pathologic process.

Conclusion: These results therefore suggest that the continuous exposure to gas flare is causing an increase in some critical tissue and organ function enzyme biomarkers in blood. This may eventually affect the health status of the residents, increase the tendency of developing ill health and generally reduce their quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Stem Bark Extract Picralima nitida for Antinociceptive Property

K. K. Igwe, O. V. Ikpeazu, M. I. Ezeja

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 108-113
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830217

Aims: To investigate the antinociceptive property of Picralima nitida stem bark methanol                 extract. Place and duration of study: Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria from February to July,       2020.

Methodology: The extraction was done by cold maceration of the pulverised P. nitida stem bark in 80% methanol for 48 hours. Acute toxicity study was done using up and down method. The antinociceptive study was carried out using tail flick and hot plate antinociceptive models. The extract was used at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg while pentazocine 3 mg/kg was used as the standard reference drug (positive group) and 5 ml/kg distilled water was used for the negative group.

Results: In the tail flick test, P. nitida at the doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg with the standard drug pentazocine significantly (P = 0.05) increased the pain reaction time (PRT), increasing the PRT from 1.80 ± 0.08 sec  in the negative group (distilled water 5 ml/kg) to 2.90 ± 0.18 sec at the dose of 200 mg/kg group of mice representing 62.06% increase. Also, in the hot plate model, the PRT was increased from 2.03 ± 0.02 sec in distilled water treated group of mice to 9.58 ± 0.99 sec in the 400 mg/kg dose of the extract.

Conclusion: The stem bark methanol extract of P. nitida demonstrated a good level of antinociceptive activity in the models used in this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

HbA1c Status in Type II Diabetes Mellitus with and without Iron Deficiency Anemia

Aparna S. Chaudhari, Alka N. Sontakke, Sangeeta B. Trimbake

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 114-120
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830218

Background: Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) reflects patient’s glycemic status over the previous 3 months. Previous studies have reported that iron deficiency may elevate HbA1c concentrations, independent of glycemia.

Aim: To assess the status of HbA1c in clinically diagnosed cases of type II Diabetes mellitus (DM) with and without iron deficiency anemia (IDA).

Study Design: Case control study in rural hospital of Talegaon Dabhade, Pune.

Methodology: The study includes 36 clinically diagnosed cases of type II DM with IDA and 36 controls which are age & sex matched having type II DM without IDA. Hematological parameters, fasting and post prandial blood glucose& HbA1c level were assessed in all subjects. Serum ferritin levels were assessed only in cases. Comparison between the parameters of cases and controls was done using appropriate statistical analysis.

Results: Levels of HbA1c are increased in cases [clinically diagnosed patients of diabetes mellitus with iron deficiency anemia that is IDA] as compared to controls [clinically diagnosed patients of diabetes mellitus without IDA] irrespective of glycemic status.

Conclusion: This study found a positive correlation between iron deficiency anemia and increased HbA1c levels, Hence IDA is to be taken in consideration while interpreting HbA1c in diagnosis and monitoring of Diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Review Article

The Potential Use of Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Saliva and Urine as Biological Samples for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Adnan Awn Algarni, Abdulhadi I. Bima, Ayman Z. Elsamanoudy

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 26-41
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i830210

Background and Aim: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. 80% of all dementia is due to AD. Diagnosis of AD is a difficult task, as the accurate diagnosis requires post-mortem examination of brain autopsy samples. Diagnosis of AD in living individuals can be aided by the establishment of the clinical criteria, positron emission tomography (PET) examination, and biomarkers. The study of biomarkers for diagnosis of AD could help clinicians to evaluate individuals at risk, and confirm the occurrence as well as the progression of AD in a non-invasive manner. High sensitivity and high specificity of the used markers are mandatory criteria for these biomarkers to trusted for AD diagnosis and prognosis. So, this review article aims to focus on the potential use of body fluids as a source of the biomarkers that are used for investigating patients with AD.

Methodology: In the current study, we reviewed scientific articles that discuss AD pathogenesis and diagnosis of Google Scholar database, Pubmed, Pubmed Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, and MedlinePlus with no time limitation. Moreover, we discussed the use of recently discovered biomarkers that are detected in blood, CSF, saliva, and urine.

Conclusion: In the current review, it could be concluded that in addition to the blood and cerebrospinal fluid as common biological samples for the diagnosis of AD, saliva and urine are useful potential biological samples. Moreover, both are noninvasive samples that give them priority to be used.