Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Analysis of the Phytochemicals, Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Scent Leaf (Ocimum gratissimum) and Bitter Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) Leaves

Nkoli M. Mgbemena, Ngozi F. Amako

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730200

Ocimum gratissimum (fam.Lamiaceae) ‘Scent leaf’ and Vernonia amygdalina (fam.Asteraceae) ‘Bitter leaf’ are commonly consumed vegetables in Southern Nigeria. O. gratissimum is used by the ‘Igbos’ of South East Nigeria to flavor soups and stews while it is popular with the ‘Yorubas’ of South West Nigeria for treatment of stomach disorders. V. amygdalina is a well known vegetable in West Africa used as both food and for its pharmaceutical properties. The enormous use of these vegetables in the diet motivated the present study whereby the food compositions, mineral constituents and the phytochemicals of the two vegetables were determined. Qualitative analysis, of the aqueous extracts, revealed the presence of saponins, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenolics and anthraquinones in both vegetables. Generally V. amygdalina contained higher quantities of secondary metabolites, saponin which was reported as the highest amount was 5.71±0.12 mg/g and 3.52±0.01 mg/g followed by terpenoids 5.64±0.11 mg/g and 3.40±0.11 mg/g in V. amygdalina and O. gratissimum respectively. There is however a minute amount of anthraquinone in the two vegetables. Proximate analysis and macro elements were determined using their various standard methods. The results of proximate analysis revealed the presence of moisture (12.28 ± 0.02% and 10.01± 0.01%) protein (35.37±0.11% and 22.20±0.02%) and total ash (6.00±0.20% and 5.75±0.10%) each in V. amygdalina and O. gratisimum respectively. The following minerals were present calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, iron, copper and zinc, with zinc being in the highest concentration (46.80± 0.03 mg/kg and 58.00±0.12 mg/kg) followed by copper (9.45±0.11 mg/kg and 16.60 ± 0.03 mg/kg) each in V. amygdalina and O. gratissimum respectively. There are higher values of phytochemicals and food components in V. amygdalina while O. gratissimum had higher mineral contents. These two vegetables are potential source of components for complementary medicine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Serum Uric Acid, Serum Magnesium and Lipid Profiles in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients for the Risk Factor of Cardiovascular Disease

Sonal Sogani, Navendru Kumar Gupta, Suman Jain

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 10-17
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730201

Background and Objective: Dyslipidemia is one of the common disorders which are seen in most of the diabetes patients, which causes cardio vascular diseases. However, serum uric acid and lipid profiles are considered as the potential risk factor for developing diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Also the direct association of trace elements such as serum magnesium and hs-CRP in type 2 diabetes has been observed. The aim of the present study is to evaluate serum uric acid, serum magnesium and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients for the risk factor of cardiovascular disease and its comparison with non diabetic subjects.

Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, PIMS, Udaipur. The study included 100 patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (both males and females) who were recruited from the institute’s medicine OPD and wards and 100 healthy controls (both males and females) with normal plasma glucose and with no symptoms suggestive of DM were included in the study. All the Biochemical parameters analysis was done on fully automated analyzer-ERBA 360 EM.

Results:  The mean values of serum lipid profiles (serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, VLDL, LDL) were compared between healthy controls and patients with type 2 DM, showed highly significant difference in patients with type 2 DM as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). However, on comparing HDL between healthy controls and patients with type 2 DM, the difference seems to be significant (p<0.05). The mean values of RBS, HbA1c, uric acid and hs-CRP were highly significant in patients with type 2 DM as compared with healthy controls (p<0.001). The mean values of serum magnesium showed significant difference between healthy controls and patients with type 2 DM p<0.05).

Interpretation and Conclusion: The common lipid abnormalities seen during diabetes induce dyslipidemia causing the development of CVD’s among diabetic patients. Also elevated levels of hs-CRP, hyperuricemia, hypomagnesium suggest that it could be a better prognosis for CVD’s and stroke in diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Levels of Adenosine Deaminase and Insulin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Yengkhom Upen Singh, Sangeeta Noarem, Potsangbam Jenny Devi, Victoria Kshetrimayum, Racheal Sweet Marbaniang, Uma Debbarma, Ksh. Birendra Singh, Maisnam Amuba Singh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 18-23
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730202

Aim: To estimate the levels of serum adenosine deaminase and insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy subjects and to find the correlation between serum adenosine deaminase and serum insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Biochemistry and Department of Medicine, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Imphal, Manipur between October 2017 to September 2019.

Methodology: 40 cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the Medicine Outpatient Department, RIMS and 40 healthy controls of age and sex-matched were recruited from those who came for a routine health check-up. Serum adenosine deaminase was measured by the calorimetry method and serum insulin was measured by ELISA method. The data were analyzed using statistical tools like Chi-square test, Independent sample t-test, Pearson’s Correlation through SPSS 21.0.

Results: Mean serum adenosine deaminase was (38.97±8.853)U/L in cases and (20.05±5.309)U/L in controls and it was statistically significant (P<0.001). Mean serum insulin in cases was found to be (18.09±5.554) μIU whereas in controls, it was (9.06±2.509) μIU which is statistically significant (p<0.001). Serum adenosine deaminase and insulin were found to be positively correlated to each other (r= 0.956, p<0.001).

Conclusion: Serum adenosine deaminase and serum insulin were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus and positively correlated to each other. Serum adenosine deaminase may be used as a prognostic marker for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemicals and Vitamin Properties of Smoothie Flavoured with Mint Leaves Extract

A. T. Victor- Aduloju, N. M. Nwanja, C. C. Ezegbe, K. S. Okocha, T. A. Aduloju

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 24-30
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730203

This study was undertaken to assess the phytochemicals, vitamin A and vitamin C properties of different samples of smoothie produced from mixed tropical fruits flavoured with mint leaves extract. The smoothie was produced from three different fruits, (watermelon, apple and banana) then flavoured with mint leaf extract. The concentration of mint extract differs in each smoothie samples, ranging from 0-8% concentrate. The sample devoid of mint leaf extract served as control. The nine smoothie samples were examined for their phytochemical properties, vitamin A and vitamin C content. The study revealed that, the phytochemical content of different samples of smoothie gave these ranges: alkaloids (0.62-1.34%), saponin (1.07-1.46%), tannin (1.87-2.41%), phenol (0.02-0.41 mg/ml), flavonoid (1.62-3.33%), cyanogenic glycosides (0.00-0.05%). From the result, it was discovered that the phytochemical properties of the smoothie increases with increased mint leaf concentrate. The vitamins content of the samples ranges from; vitamin A (466-642 IU), vitamin C (9.30-10.83 mg/100 ml). The smoothie sample with high contents of mint extract are potentially good source of phytochemicals and vitamins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Level of Some Mineral Elements in Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drink Consumed within Gombe Metropolis

S. M. Umar, F. U. Maigari, J. J. Idi, J. Salome

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 31-35
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730205

The study was conducted to determine the levels of magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and calcium present in Zobo Drink consumed in Gombe metropolis. Zobo (Hibiscus sabdariffa) drink has been consumed for decades as a non-alcoholic beverage, thus, the knowledge of its nutritional value is of huge interest. Hence, it is important to determine the level of some minerals present in the beverage. Ten samples were bought from different retailers within Gombe metropolis and were digested using Aqua regia (1:3 of HNO3 and HCL) in the laboratory and the levels of the various elements in each sample were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the sample from Gombe State University commercial area 1 has the highest (P<0.05) magnesium content (9.38.±0.02 mg/kg). Calcium (2.90.±0.02 mg/kg) and Phosphorus (9.11.±0.02 mg/kg) were found to be highest in samples obtained from Arawa market and Gombe State University commercial area 2 respectively. Potassium was (14.45.±0.05 mg/kg) was highest in the beverage gotten from Gombe State University commercial area 2. The results showed that Zobo drink sold in Gombe metropolis possess some amount of the assayed  minerals but are lower than the Regular Dietary Intake (RDI) permissible by the World Health Organisation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of Phyllanthus amarus on 1, 2 Dimethylhydrazine Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Balb/C Mice

F. O. Omoregie, G. E. Eriyamremu, Suman Kapur

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 36-43
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i730206

Context: Phyllanthus amarus is traditionally used for various infections, inflammation and cancer. 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine is a potent colon cancer inducer in animals.

Objective: The present study investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus on 1, 2 Dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in BALB/c Mice.

Materials and Methods: 30 female Balb/C Mice of weight 18-30 g were acclimatized for a week and randomized into 6 groups (5 per group). Group A (-DMH), Group B (+DMH), Group C (DMH+250 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic extract of P. amarus), Group D (DMH+350 mg/kg body weight of ethanolic of P. amarus), Group E (DMH + 250 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. amarus), Group F (DMH+ 350 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of P. amarus). 20 mg/kg body weight of DMH was administered orally for 21 days (twice a week). The plant extracts were administered daily for 3 weeks with the aid of a gavage immediately after colon cancer induction. Colon cancer was evaluated by the formation of Aberrant Cryptic Foci in the colon of DMH treated mice.

Results: Administration of the plant extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) ameliorated the carcinogenic effect of DMH in the colon of DMH treated mice in a dose dependent manner by significantly reducing the number of Aberrant Cryptic Foci formed in extract treated mice by 38% for 350 mg/kg body of ethanolic extract and by 22% for 350 mg/kg body of aqueous extract of Phyllanthus amarus.

Conclusion: The studied extracts had ameliorative potential on DMH induced colon cancer in Balb/C mice in a dose dependent manner providing evidence for the traditional use of this herb for treatment/prevention of cancer. Notably, 350 mg/kg body of both extracts showed better reduction of Aberrant Cryptic Foci compared to 250 mg/kg body of both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus amarus.