Open Access Minireview Article

Pathogenesis and Possible Drug Targets for Covid-19

N. Ramesh Kumar, S. Chitra

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530186

Coronavirus (CoVs) is a large family of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that infect a wide range of vertebrates. They are extensively found in bats and also in many other birds and mammals including humans. SARS-CoV-2 is a global pandemic and originated from Wuhan States of China. The SARS-CoV-2 is more genetically similar to zoonotic SARS-CoV and less similar to MERS-CoV.  The viral surface spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor of Type II alveolar cells of the lungs and it appears to be the major portal of entry by this virus.  The subsequent activation of the spike protein by transmembrane protease-2 and in addition to lung, ACE-2 is highly expressed in heart followed by kidney and intestinal epithelium. SARS-CoV-2 infects more men than women due to ACE-2 receptor on the cells increased with age and generally it was higher in men than in women. The incubation period for this virus varies from place to place and asystematic symptoms are also commonly seen in infected patients. There are a number of pharmaceuticals already being tried and are in different phase levels of testing, but a better understanding of the underlying pathobiology is required. In this circumstance, this article will briefly review the underlying principle for ACE-2 receptor as a specific target. Despite ACE-2 serving as the portal for infection, the role of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers requires further investigation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical and Microbiological Evaluation of the Effect of Processing on Cucumeropsis mannii Seed

A. O. Ileola, T. R. Omodara, O. A. Awoyinka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 9-18
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530187

The determination of the effect of processing on nutritional composition and level of undigested oligosaccharide in Cucumeropsis mannii seeds was carried out. The dried melon seeds were sorted, cleaned, soaked in 60mL water for 15 min for easy removal and de-hulled to get the cotyledons, which were divided into three portions. The first portion was used unprocessed, the second portion was boiled while the third portion was fermented for analysis. The microbial load, physicochemical analyses, proximate compositions, anti-nutritional factors, antioxidant activity, vitamins, mono and oligosaccharides sugars were determined. Processing led to significant increase in the pH, moisture contents buta reduction in the total titratable acidity. Processing increased protein, fat and ash contents. Significant reduction in anti-nutritional factors of boiled and fermented melon seed was noted. Processing led to significant increase in the antioxidant activity. The saccharide sugars reduced after processing. The study observed that processing increased significantly the nutritional composition of the melon seeds but significantly reduced the anti-nutritional factors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Anti-oxidant Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation, Lipid Profile and Liver Function in Albino Rats Orally Administered Tartrazine

Uyota Anthony Adele, Geraldine Iroh, Ojoye Ngoye Briggs, Helen Anthony Waribo, Ibioku Elekima

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 19-29
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530188

Aim: To evaluate the anti-oxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile and liver function in albino rats orally administered tartrazine.

Study Design: A total number of 63 female albino rats weighing approximately 0.2 kg were used for this study. The study was divided into two phases, phase 1 which lasted for the first 30 days, comprised of 35 rats, 20 rats were used as test group while 15 rats served as the control group. Phase 2 of the study was for 60 days and 28 rats were used with 16 as test group and 12 as the control. The test groups were orally administered with 7.5 mg/kg of tartrazine (ADI) daily over the specified periods while the control groups were not treated with tartrazine but given only food and water.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt, Nigeria within a period of 12 months (Feb., 2019 – Jan., 2020).

Methodology: At the end of the study, 5 mls of whole blood specimens was collected by means of cardiac puncture into plain bottles. To obtain the serum, the whole blood samples were allowed to clot and later dislodged and spun at 3500 rpm for 10 minutes. The collected serum specimens were used to analyze SOD, MDA, GPX, ALT, GGT, ALP, TG, TCHOL, and HDL-C, while LDL-C was calculated using Friedwald equation.

Results: The chronic treatment of rats with tartrazine azo food dye at the ADI dose caused an increase in MDA levels after 30 and 60 days test rats compared to the control, while TCHOL and HDL-C showed significant decrease after 30 and 60 days of treatment in the test group compared to the control group. In addition, ALT indicated significant increase in test group after 60 days of treatment compared to control group. ALP, GGT, TG, LDL-C, SOD and GPX showed no significant difference after 30, and 60 days of treatment at ADI doses. Histologic examination of the liver indicated hydropic dilation, degenerating hepatocyes and infiltration of central vein with parenchymal materials alongside kupffer cells.

Conclusion: The results from this study revealed that orally administered tartrazine at the recommended ADI dose increased lipid peroxidation as seen in the elevated MDA levels. Hepatic derangements were also seen as revealed by increased ALT and histologic distortions as well fall in TCHOL and HDL-C lipid fractions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Partially Purified Protein from Young and Matured Root of Guiera senegalensis (Moshi Medicine)

M. K. Jiyil, M. I. Shago, C. E. Mafuyai, M. Silas, O. A. Olorunyomi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 30-39
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530189

Background: Antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria is increasing at an alarming rate leading to the need for traditional medicine as an alternative.

Aim of the Study: The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic and, aqueous extracts of partial purified protein of young and matured roots of Guiera senegalensis.

Methodology: Antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques, Quantitative phytochemical analysis was carried out by standard procedure, the gel chromatography technique was used to fractionate the crude protein. The test isolates were Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Candida albicans.

Results: The antimicrobial activity showed all the extracts were quite effective against most of the test isolates except Candida albicans (fungus). The crude and partially purified proteins were active against Gram-positive bacteria. The maximum zone of inhibition (37.33±5.03b mm) was observed in methanolic extracts of young root against Staphylococcus aureus at 100 mg/ml. Most extracts of methanolic exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at the range of 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml. The young root was more active than the matured root. Quantitative phytochemicals showed a high amount of saponins (9.98% and 6.42%) in matured and young roots respectively.

Conclusion: Guiera senegalensis has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and a potential source of new antibiotics that could be useful for the treatment of infectious diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Antidiabetic Potential of Ugandan- Matooke (Musa paradisiaca) Peels

Adaku Vivien Iwueke, Nnamdi John Ejekwumadu, Roland Kiiza, Kenneth Iceland Kasozi, Swafia Khambari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530190

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycaemia over a prolonged period. In Uganda, unripe Musa paradisiaca (banana) is a staple food which is deskinned before cooking. In West Africa, however, the unpeeled banana is cooked for diabetics.

Aim: The objective of the study was to assess the hypoglycemic and body weight changes in experimental diabetic Wistar rats treated with green banana peel extracts.

Methodology: Out of the thirty-nine male rats used for the study, nine were used for the evaluation of possible oral acute toxicity. The remaining thirty were divided into six groups of 5 rats each. Experimental diabetes mellitus was induced by intravenous injection of alloxan (65 mg/kg body weight) the alloxan and treated with insulin, distilled water and graded doses of the extract (1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg and 4000 mg/kg body weight) for two weeks.

The weight and blood glucose levels were measured before and after induction and prior to administration of treatment dosages. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. ANOVA and spearman’s rank correlation tests determined significant changes in values at 95% confidence interval.

Results: The rats showed no signs of toxicity nor death even at a dose of 10,000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed saponins, tannins, phenols, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids. This study demonstrates that Musa paradisiaca peels significantly attenuated blood glucose levels (P < 0.005) and regulated body weights at doses (≥ 2000 mg/kg) which are essential parameters in the management of diabetes mellitus.

Conclusion: In line with the findings, unripe banana peels are anti-diabetic; unripe bananas therefore, should be cooked with the skins to derive its established anti-diabetic benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Antiplasmodial and Antioxidant Activities, Total Phenolics and Flavonoids Content, and Toxicological Profile of Cola millenii K. shum (Malvaceae)

Gerard Hodeve Tiko, Abdou Madjid O. Amoussa, Rafiou Adamou, Adande A. Medjigbodo, Luc S. Djogbenou, Latifou Lagnika

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 47-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i530191

Aims: This study was designed to assess antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities in relation to phytochemical contents and toxicological profile of crude extracts of Cola millenii leaves.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out from April 2015 to November 2018 at University of Abomey-Calavi, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Bioactives Natural Products and Laboratory of Infectious Vector-borne Diseases.

Methodology: Phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic crude extracts was performed using standard methods. Estimation of total phenolics contains (TPC) and total flavonoids contains (TFC) was done using colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity was assessed in vitro by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) Radical-Scavenging, Reducing power, superoxide radical scavenging and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Antiplasmodial activity was investigated in vitro using both field isolate and laboratory 3D7 strains of P. falciparum using Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. Hemoglobin release was measured spectrophotometrically to assess hemolytic power. Acute oral toxicity of extracts was evaluated on rats according to OECD 423 guideline.

Results: Flavonoids, anthraquinones, coumarins, and triterpenes were recorded in both extracts while tannins were recorded only in ethanolic extract. High TPC and TFC were recorded with ethanolic extract with significate difference (P <0.01) when compared to aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract exhibited the highest parasite growth inhibition against both field isolate (41.62±1.78%) and 3D7 (45.89±1.66%) strains at 100 µg/mL. Both extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity according to different methods used. Toxicological profile revealed no hemolytic effect on human red blood cells as well as acute toxicity signs in rats.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated strong antioxidant and moderate antiplasmodial activities of C. millenii extracts without toxicity effect on rats and human erythrocytes. It would play an important role in malaria and oxidative damage control.