Open Access Short Research Article

Nutrient and Bioactive Components of Annona muricata and Fagara zanthoxyloide of South-Southern Nigeria

O. U. Ekere, C. C. Monago-Ighorodje, C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 41-47
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230171

This study was aimed at investigating the nutrient and bioactive components of Annona muricata and Fagara zanthxoyloide from south-southern Nigeria. The roots and leaves of these plants were collected from communities within this region and an analysis of the phytochemical, mineral and vitamin components of these plant parts were carried out using standard methods. The results of the investigation revealed the a high presence of alkaloids (27.34 ± 0.15 and 12.98 ± 0.98), flavonoids (19.66 ± 0.04 and 3.71 ± 0.46) and phenols (15.10 ± 0.11 and 0.07 ± 0.42) in the leaves and roots of Annona muricata while alkaloids (35.55 ± 0.95 and 50.90 ± 0.83), tannins (28.70 ± 0.19 and 55.37 ± 0.47) and terpenoids (18.23 ± 0.08 and 41.21 ± 0.16) were observed in leaves and roots of Fagara zanthoxyloide. Mineral analysis revealed the presence of iron (20.23 ± 0.01 and 5.21 ± 0.02), calcium (3.67 ± 0.06 and 1.59 ± 0.01), copper (2.17 ± 0.011 and 0.16 ± 0.01) and magnesium (3.04 ± 0.01 and 2.18 ± 0.005) in leaves and roots of Annona muricata and iron, copper (2.53 ± 0.011 and 7.38 ± 0.017) and zinc (5.16 ± 0.02 and 5.32 ± 0.011) in leaves and roots of Fagara zanthoxyloide. The leaves and roots of both plants also showed the presence of folate (26.82±0.48 and 23.47±0.03 for A. muricata and 15.82±0.18 and 20.63±0.91 for F. zanthoxyloide) and ascorbate (31.97±0.03 and 26.89±0.19 for A. muricata and 13.86±0.13 and 30.21±0.01 for F. zanthoxyloide) in appreciable quantities while vitamins D, E and K were also observed in minute concentrations in both plant samples. These results may thus suggest that these plants from this region as a result of their rich nutrients and bioactive compositions may play a large role in alleviating the salient nutritional, physiological and medical challenges observed among people within this region.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Prediabetes

Ashish Agarwal, Anupama Hegde, Afzal Ahmad, Charu Yadav, Poornima A. Manjrekar, M. S. Rukmini

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230166

Introduction: Prediabetes is associated with dysglycemia, endothelial dysfunction, obesity and inflammation, placing them at an increased risk of cardiovascular events.

Aims: The present study aimed to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with prediabetes by estimation of serum interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and urine microalbumin and their correlation with fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College Hospitals, Mangaluru between 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: Eighty subjects were categorised into prediabetes and healthy controls based on their fasting plasma glucose values. Anthropometric data (weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio from all subjects were recorded. Interleukin-6 & myeloperoxidase were estimated in serum sample whereas microalbumin was estimated in random urine sample.

Results: The mean anthropometric measurements and cardiovascular disease risk markers (interleukin-6, myeloperoxidase and urine microalbumin) were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in prediabetes group. Myeloperoxidase had significant correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r-0.388) in the prediabetes group. Interleukin-6 and myeloperoxidase also showed a positive correlation with body mass index (r - 0.339, r - 0.327), waist circumference (r - 484, r - 0.493) and waist-to-hip ratio (r - 0.430, r - 0.493) while urine microalbumin did not correlate with fasting plasma glucose and anthropometric measurements in prediabetes group.

Conclusion: This study suggests that prediabetes is associated with central adiposity and have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of the Garcinia kola Seed on Glycemia, Creatininemia and Aminotransferases in Adult Subjects

Moutawakilou Gomina, Tarik Salifou, Gilbert Djidonou, Stanislas Zinsou

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 25-32
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230169

Background: The administration of extracts of Garcinia kola seed to experimental rats has a hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect.

Objective: Assess the effect of daily consumption of Garcinia kola seed on glycemia, creatinine and serum aminotransferases among adult subjects.

Methods: We carried out an intervention study based on quasi-experimental approach during three months i.e. from May 1 to July 30, 2019. A sample consisting of 40 adult subjects (18 men, 22 women) had participated to the study after their written consent and approval by the institutional ethics committee. After the baseline testing which consists of fasting glycemia, creatininemia, alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), each subject consumed one Garcinia kola seed per day during 90 days. Then, every 30 days, the same testing was performed. Glycemia was determined by endpoint colometric method for assaying enzyme using glucose oxidase; creatinine by colometric kinetic assay using the JAFFE reagent; and aminotransferases by UV enzyme kinetics. Student’s t test helped compare the mean values of the parameters determined at the beginning and at the end of the experiment at the threshold of 5%.

Results: The mean values at the beginning and at the end of the experiment were glycemia in g/L (0.81± 0.20 vs 0.84 ± 0.14), creatininemia in mg/L (9.36 ± 2.44 vs 8.01 ± 2.15), ALAT in UI/L (27.19 ± 15.77 vs 25.60 ± 12.45) and ASAT in UI/L (28.46 ± 11.52 vs 23.30 ± 8.48). A significant decrease of creatininemia and ASAT was observed (p = .010 and .025 respectively).

Conclusion: The consumption of the Garcinia kola seed has a nephroprotective and hepatoprotective effect.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Phytomineral Status of Spigelia anthelmia Linn Leaves

O. L. Awotedu, P. O. Ogunbamowo, O. S. Ariwoola, E. P. Chukwudebe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 33-40
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230170

Aims: Spigelia anthelmia is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of diverse diseases and contain plant-based natural bio-active constituents.

Study Design: Phytochemical and mineral analysis of Spigelia anthelmia leaves using standard analytical procedures.

Place and Duration of Study: Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, between May 2019 and July 2019.

Methodology: Phytochemical and phytomineral status of Spigelia anthelmia leaves were investigated using standard analytical procedures. Phytochemicals screening/analysis examined include; alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannin, phenolics, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannin and terpenoids. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used to determine the minerals which are calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu), while flame photometer was used in determining potassium (K) and sodium (Na). Data were presented using descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation).

Results: Result indicates the presence of phytochemicals in the leaves of S. anthelmia, the quantitative analysis shows: alkaloid (2.34mg/100g), flavonoid (6.13mg/100g), saponin (18.12mg/100g), tannin (9.61mg/100g), phenol (4.61mg/100g), cardiac glycosides (1.89mg/100g), terpenoids (0.98mg/100g) and phlobatannin (0.32mg/100g). The macro elements reveals Na (0.022%), K (0.23%), Ca (0.48%), Mg (0.15%), P (0.035%), while the micro element shows that Fe (0.19%), Mn (0.003%), Cu (0.001%), Zn (0.004%).

Conclusion: The result suggests that S. anthelmia has a strong pharmacological prowess and could be used in the prevention and treatment of various health-related diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Time Interval between Collection, Plasma Separation and Analysis and the Effect of Temperature on the Laboratory Results of Plasma Glucose Estimation

Ashish Agarwal, Poornima Ajay Manjrekar, Afzal Ahmad, Charu Yadav

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 48-54
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230172

Introduction: In a clinical laboratory, consistency of test results cannot be solely achieved by controlling the accuracy in the analytical phase of glucose estimation alone. Considering the high chances of pre-analytical errors, due consideration has to be given for storage criteria as well.

Aims: Aim is to find out the quantitative alterations and the useful time interval between collection and analysis and the effect of temperature on the laboratory results of plasma glucose.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College Hospitals, Mangaluru between 2015 and 2016.

Methodology: In this study, 17 apparently healthy volunteers aged 20-30 years were enrolled with their consent. Plasma glucose levels were estimated by glucose oxidase- peroxidase kit method in semi-autoanalyzer at different temperatures and at different time intervals after collection and at room temperature but separating plasma at different time intervals and correlating it with the initial value.

Results: The mean of plasma glucose when estimated immediately after separation of plasma was 78.16 ± 13.28 mg/dL. Only when glucose was estimated within 2 hrs when stored at 2-8° Celsius after plasma separation (71.57 ± 12.64), non- significant difference was noted (p value – 0.696) otherwise as the temperature and time interval for estimation increases, the value of glucose decreases significantly. The effect of delayed separation of plasma showed that as the time of separation increases the value of glucose decreases significantly in the sample.

Conclusion: Most mistakes occur before the samples are analysed, either during sampling or preparation for analysis. Thus, proper storage temperature and time must be considered for plasma glucose estimation, if measurement cannot be done immediately.

Open Access Review Article

Physiological Basis of Memory Dysfunction in Alzheimer’s Disease – An Overview

A. S. V. Prasad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 9-24
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i230168

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neuro-degenerative disease, causing gradual decline in memory function in the affected patients. The loss of memory makes their existence miserable. It is first noticed and reported by the patient’s care takers. The clinicians objectively assess the type and degree of the memory loss by a specific battery of tests, specially designed for the purpose (like Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test., Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE etc.)). Understanding the symptoms of AD, arising out of memory loss, requires deeper insights into what initiates the memory (the sensory inputs from the five sense organs), the different types of memories (explicit, implicit memories, their sub types and associative memory etc.), how the memory signals are modified at the level of the neuron, (analog to digital signals) and the synapse (sensitization, habituation and Long term potentiation / depression etc.), the processing that the inputs received , undergo (encoding, consolidation /organization, storage and retrieval) in higher brain centres (amygdala, hippocampus prefrontal vortex etc.) and also the role played by the various receptors (NMDA, AMPA and the kinase receptors), the neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, Norepineprine, Gama aminobutic acid, serotonin etc.), the central network systems involved (central executive network, salience network, and the default mode network). In short, it is the study all about, of the physiology of memory. The next step is to integrate this knowledge to interpret symptoms of patients with AD. Accordingly, the subject under discussion is dealt with in two parts. Firstly, how the memory is affected in AD and secondly the physiology behind these changes.