Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Leptin and Vaspin Serum Concentration in Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

K. Priya, S. K. Bansal, D. K. Sharma, K. Y. Birendra

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130160

Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the correlation of circulating leptin and vaspin levels with lipid profile, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c and anthropometric variable as inflammatory markers between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects.

Material and Methods: This study was conducted with 120 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with age-matched 120 non-diabetic subjects as controls.

Results: We found that there is significant increase in the parameters like serum Leptin, Vaspin, FBS, PPBS, HbA1c and lipid profile (TC, TG & VLDL). No significant differences were found between BMI, LDL & HDL parameters of T2DM patients compared to non-diabetic subjects. The results have been shown a significant positive correlation between Vaspin and Leptin in T2DM patients, (r = .755) and (P˂0.01) as compared to controls. The body mass index was positively correlated with Vaspin in T2DM patients, (r = .50) and (P <0.01) and with leptin in T2DM patients, (r = .265) and (P <0.01). A positive correlation had also observed between vaspin and LDL in T2DM patients, (r = .189) and (p <0.05). We also found that significant increased level of leptin and vaspin in females compared to males in our study group.

Conclusions: Serum leptin and vaspin level is positively associated with BMI and LDL and negatively correlated with fasting blood sugar, post-prandial glucose, HbA1c, VLDL and age.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Leaf Extract of Senna alata on Biochemical Indices of Wistar Rats Infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei

M. A. Kugama, T. Tese, H. Sabo, T. Andrew, Y. A. Onaolapo, O. G. Allen, A. Agbo, D. W. Danjuma, A. M. Usman, L. M. Umar, P. J. Baji

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 10-19
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130161

This study was aimed at determining the effect of leaves of Senna alata extract on biochemical indices of Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Phytochemical screening revealed the absence of steroids in all extracts, absence of saponins in chloroform extracts and the presence of free anthraquinones only in chloroform extract. Post-infection treatment of animals stirred the emergence of parasitaemia by Day 3. Only animals receiving 200 mg/kg b.wt. of chloroform extract survived by day 16. A significant (P<0.05) decrease in ALT for groups receiving methanol (400 mg/kg b.wt.), chloroform and aqueous extracts and significant (P<0.05) increase in unconjugated bilirubin in the group receiving methanol extract (200 mg/kg b.wt.) compared to infected not treated rats. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in potassium concentration in groups receiving methanol and chloroform, and a significant (P<0.05) increase in sodium concentration in the group receiving 400 mg/kg b.wt. of aqueous extract compared to the infected not treated rats. These results thereby demonstrate the ameliorative potential of Senna alata leaves against T. brucei brucei.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Repeated Administration of Extracts from Arachis hypogaea Hulls on Blood Parameters and Histological Organization of Heart, Liver and Kidneys of Rats

Djyh Bernard Nazaire, Tra Bi Irié Otis, Oungbé Monkoué Désiré, Gnahoué Goueh Laurent, Kra Adou Koffi Mathieu, D’almeida Marie-Anne Kayi, Djaman Allico Joseph

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 20-33
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130162

Aims: Arachis hypogaea (peanuts) is widely used in food worldwide. Therapeutic use of various parts of this plant has been mentioned in many traditional medicinal systems. The aim of the present study was to evaluate subacute toxicity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of peanuts hulls.

Place and Duration: Laboratory of Biochemical Pharmacodynamics, Faculty of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, from March to June 2018.

Methodology: Serial extraction was done using methanol and water as solvents. The study was evaluated by orally daily doses of extracts 300, 600 and 1200 mg/kg. The treatment for 28 days concerned seven groups of animals, the control group and six treated groups. Each group included six animals, 3 males and 3 females. Animals of control group didn’t have any treatment. Animals were observed for general behavioural and signs of abnormalities during the experiment. After all treatments, blood was collected for haematological and biochemical analysis. Liver, kidney, and heart were removed, weighed for histological study.

Results: The results showed that, there were not any significant (p˃0.05) changes in both the absolute and relative organ weights between the control and the test groups. Biochemical parameters were statistically equal in all groups. In addition, both extracts did not induce any significant effect on RBC and indices relating to it (HGB, PCV, MCV, MCH and MCHC) throughout the experimental period. But, there was a decrease (16.33±1.68) on WBC with methanolic extract compared to control (13.79±2.73). Histological examination of the liver, kidneys, and the heart showed normal organisation and structure of heart, kidneys and liver.

Conclusion: It appears that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of hull of Arachis hypogaea did not produce any toxicity in oral subacute toxicity study. However, further studies are needed to confirm long term toxicities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural and Gene Characterization of a New Antifungal Peptide Obtained from Penicillium crustosum FP11 Strain

Juliana Beal Menegotto, Lucas F. Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia Garcia Simão, Alexandre Maller, Marina Kimiko Kadowaki, José Luis da C.Silva

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 50-60
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130164

A novel antifungal peptide, PcAFP (6.48 kDa, pI 8.83), was obtained from the culture supernatant of the fungus Penicillium crustosum. The gene encoding the PcAFP peptide was isolated based on its homologue in Penicillium chrysogenum, PgAFP. PcAFP is a small, cystine-rich peptide, and the mature peptide consists of 58 amino acid residues. The immature P. crustosum antifungal protein (AFP) showed 95.65% identity to the antifungal protein of P. chrysogenum, while the mature peptide showed 98.28% identity with PgAFP. Molecular modeling of the tertiary structure of the mature peptide revealed details of the conserved structure of the AFPs, such as the β-barrel motif stabilized by three disulfide bonds and the l-core motif. Analysis of the extract by 16% tricine SDS-PAGE showed a 6.9 kDa peptide, which was close to the predicted molecular mass of the mature peptide of 6.48 kDa. Assays of antimicrobial activity, performed by broth microdilution using the crude extract obtained from the culture medium, showed activity against Candida albicans. These results demonstrate the conservation of the PcAPF gene and the high level of identity with the PgAFP antifungal protein of P. chrysogenum. Given these structural and biochemical characteristics, PcAFP could be a potential candidate for future investigations that may aid in the development of new antifungal compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hop-derived Xanthohumol Induces HL-60 Leukemia Cells Death

M. Pacurari, H. Brown, A. Rieland

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 61-72
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130165

Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) affects both kids and adults, however it is more prevalent in younger population. Although APL has a favorable prognostic, patients that relapse often do not respond positively to additional chemotherapy. Therefore, there is a need to further identify ways to overcome these challenges. 

Hypothesis: In this study, we examined antileukemic effects of xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid derived from hops (Humulus lupulus L), on human promyelocytic HL-60 cells. 

Materials and Methods: HL-60 cells were exposed to different concentrations of XN (μM) for 24 h. Cell viability, cell morphology, chromatin condensation, cPARP-1 level, and caspase-3 activation, and the expression of p21WAF1/Cip1 were analyzed.

Results: XN reduced HL-60 cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. XN induced a dose-dependent morphological changes including cell shrinkage and blebbing, and significantly increased the number of cells with condensed chromatin. XN significantly increased the level of cPARP-1, active caspase-3, and the expression of p21WAF/CIP mRNA.

Conclusion: These data indicate that XN induces HL-60 cell death by regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. This study suggests that XN may have antileukemic preventive effects.

Open Access Review Article

The Essentials of Biochemistry of the Proteins as Related to Alzheimer’s Disease: A Review

A. S. V. Prasad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 34-49
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2020/v29i130163

Amyloid plaques and Tau tangles, constitute the pathological hallmarks of the brains of the patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. They are identified as far back as 1996 by Alois Alzheimer, a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist, but till this date, how they produce neuronal death remained an enigma. The amyloid cascade theory held its sway until recent times until the emphasis is shifted to the metabolites of amyloid Beta precursor protein (APP). Several metabolites of APP are formed depending on by which pathway, the APP is metabolized, either by the non -amyloidogenic pathway (forming α-C terminal fragment -CTFα / C83 and the N-terminal fragment sAPPα / P3 and the APP intracellular domain AICD). Or amyloidogenic pathways. (Forming extracellular Aβ and APP intracellular domain -AICD). The hyperphosphorylation is held responsible for the tau protein tangles. The over activity of the tau kinases or the failure of inhibition by the tau phosphatases is implicated, in tau tangle deposits. These biochemical aspects of AD assumed importance in connection with the interventional therapeutic strategies that are developed in the years bygone, as well as those still are in the developing stage. In keeping with this fact, it is attempted to review the essentials of the biochemical aspects of the involved proteins, as related to AD, in this article.