Open Access Short Research Article

Effect of Oral Administration of Diclofenac Sodium on Coagulation Factors and Some Hematological Parameters in Wister Rats

Abraham Zorte, Jonathan Esima, Waribo Helen, Onwuli, Donatus O.

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430154

Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug often obtainable as a prescription drug or over the counter. It is very effective in the control of inflammation and pain due to arthritis or pains arising following many disease conditions because of its antipyretic, anti inflammatory and analgesic potentials. Despite the beneficial effects of diclofenac sodium, it has been implicated in some adverse effects. In this study, we examined the effect of acute and chronic administration of diclofenac sodium on some hematological (PCV, WBC differentials) and coagulation  (prothrombin  time,  activated partial prothrombin time and platelets count) parameters of albino Wister rats using the standard methods.  Twenty four Albino Wister rats were divided into three groups of 8 rats and grouped as control, acute study and chronic study. The rats were administered 0.2 mg of diclofenac sodium for 24 hours for acute and 3 weeks for chronic studies respectively. The rats were sacrificed and blood collected for analysis of PCV, WBC differentials, prothrombin time, activated partial prothrombin time and platelets count using the  standard  methods.  Results  show  that  acute  administration  of  diclofenac sodium  at  0.2 mg  has  no  effect  on  hematological  and  coagulation  parameters,  but chronic  administration  could  instigate  significant  reduction  in  PCV,  platelets  count, neutrophils and monocytes (p<0.001), while there is a significant increase in PT, INR, lymphocytes  (p<0.001).  Considering these alterations, it is advisable that  this drug should be made a strictly prescription drug in order to prevent indiscriminate use of this medication and to prevent attendant anemia and coagulopathy that may follow chronic use.

Open Access Short Research Article

Influence of Fractional Composition of Dietary Supplements "Majmui Rahmoniy" on Mycobacterium smegmatis

Irodakhon Mamatova, Mukhamatdin Mamarakhmonov, Ibragim Askarov

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430155

Despite the availability of anti-TB drugs, the proportion of cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is increasing. One of the important tasks to identify effective drugs in nature is the study of numerous experiments of traditional medicine.  This work is devoted to the study of chemical, biochemical, medical evaluation of the new therapeutic food additive "Majmui Rahmoniy", and its effective effect on Mycobacterium smegmatis and  MS Rv2349c gene which responsible for the phospholipase activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Storage on Nutritional, Mineral Composition and Mycoflora of Stored Sundried Citrullus lanatus Thunberg (Melon) Seeds

Emmanuel Dayo Fagbohun, Ayodeji Segun Ogundahunsi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430149

The effect of storage on the nutritive values, proximate composition and mycoflora of Citrullus lanatus was investigated during a 24 weeks of storage. The mycoflora were isolated using direct plating and washing methods. Eight fungi were isolated namely Fusarium sp., Rhizopus sp., Mucor sp., Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium sp. The fungal count was found to increase as the storage time increased. The proximate analysis showed a decrease and an increase on some parameters investigated. The mineral composition was found to decrease as the storage time increased. The following nutrients (g/100 g) were found to have reduced: ash content 4.29 - 3.19, fibre content 2.06 - 1.51, fat content 57.02 - 50.90, while the following increased: Moisture content 7.21-12.22, crude protein 29.24-30.90, carbohydrate content 0.20-2.01. The results for minerals analysis (mg/100 g) showed a decrease in all parameters investigated: sodium 2.01-1.49, potassium 65.52-56.21, calcium 13.10-10.19, magnesium 46.34-37.61, Iron 8.12-3.31, zinc 4.76-1.24, copper 2.84-2.11 and phosphorus 3.46-1.60 while lead and cadmium were not detected. However, storage was found to cause deterioration and reduction in the nutritive value and mineral content of C. lanatus seeds. It is therefore recommended that these seeds must be stored under controlled conditions that will prevent the growth of fungi and reduction of nutrients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Lifestyle and Some Biochemical Parameters Involved in Bone Health in Pre and Postmenopausal Cameroonian Women

Gerard Nkeunen, Tsafack Takadong Julie Judith, Simo Gustave, Betrand Ayuk Tambe, Ayangma Celestin Roger, Tume Christopher Bonglavnyuy

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430150

Aims: A healthy skeletal system with strong bones is essential to overall health. This study aimed to assess lifestyle and bone’s biomarkers of women.

Study Design: This was a cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The enrollment took place at the Yaounde Military Hospital from November 2016 to July 2017.

Methodology: A set of 105 postmenopausal and 127 premenopausal participants were enrolled from November 2016 to July 2017 in Yaounde. Their physical activities level was evaluated using a questionnaire. Sunlight exposure between 10:00AM and 4:00PM was assessed. Colorimetric methods were used to evaluate calcium, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase activity in plasma. These parameters were then compared within year since menopause (YSM) and osteoporosis risk assessment instrument (ORAI) sub-groups.

Results: 13.4% participants were moderately active. Only 22.8% participants had at least 30 minutes sun exposure daily. A multivariable analysis of demographic, lifestyle, biochemical characteristic revealed age, BMI, albumin and calcium were the main factors that influenced bone health among our participants. A significant difference of calcium concentration was found between the two groups whereas albumin was significantly higher in premenopausal than postmenopausal. Albumin was the only variable with a significant difference in the YSM sub-groups while only calcium was non-significantly higher among the ORAI sub-groups.

Conclusion: Elevated plasma level of calcium, albumin and alkaline phosphatase could be indicators of high bone turnover.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephrotoxicological Effect of Water Soluble Fraction of Bonny Light Crude Oil in Wistar Albino Rats

Abraham, Chiedozie Nicholas, J. Udom, Godwin, C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, Kingsley

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430151

This study evaluated the Nephrotoxic effect of water soluble fraction (WSF) of Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO). After preparation of the WSF and a range finding test, the Wistar albino rats were administered three concentrations (25%, 50% and 100%) of WSF of BLCO for 30 and 60days. Data from the study showed that Urea concentration increased significantly (p≤0.05) with increasing dose of BLCO ranging from 14.71 mg/dl in the control to 35.28 mg/dl in the 100% group after 30days and 14.28 mg/dl in the control to 41.08mg/dl in the 100% group after 60days, Creatinine concentration increased significantly (p≤0.05) from 0.22 mg/dl in the control to 0.82mg/dl in the 100% group after 60 days administration while electrolyte (Na, K, Cl) concentration increased significantly (p≤0.05) with increasing dose of BLCO after 60days administration. Histopathological examination of the kidney was characterized by partial partitioning of the glomerular tufts, obliteration of the Bowman’s capsule and distortion of the renal tubules. The findings in this research suggest that WSF of BLCO induced nephrotoxicity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chelation Therapy and Blood Transfusion on Trace Elements in Thalassemia Patients

Vijaysinh R. Parmar, Kuldip Singh, Asha Khubchandani

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430152

Background: β-Thalassemia major is considered to be one of the most common inherited hemolytic anemia. Enhanced years of survival of thalassemia have led to unmasking related complications related to alterations in certain trace elements like magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, copper, zinc etc.

Objective: Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of iron chelation therapy and blood transfusion on certain trace elements (Magnesium, Calcium, Phosphorus, Copper, Zinc) in β-thalassemic patients on chelation therapy more than one year.

Materials and Methods: In the present cross sectional study, 100 β-thalassemic patients receiving chelation therapy for atleast 1year were recruited from Civil Hospital Ahmedabad, Gujarat during February, 2017 to December, 2018 and equal  number (n=100) of healthy subjects were taken as a control group in the age range of 8 to 15 years of both sexes (male & female). The levels of serum magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and copper in serum were analyzed and results were correlated with normal healthy subjects.

Results: A significant increase in serum copper (P≤ 0.01) and phosphorus (P≤ 0.001) were observed levels while a significant (P≤ 0.05) fall in magnesium, calcium and zinc levels recorded in β-thalassemic patients in comparison to healthy control subjects.

Conclusion: Aforementioned observations suggested that fluctuations in the trace elements levels in β- thalassemic children receiving blood transfusion and iron chelation therapy could leads to different complications like hemolyzed red cells, infections & hemochromatosis renal damage, hypoparathyroidism etc. if remains untreated. Hence routine assessment of these elements is recommended for better management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitors of Cellulase Activities According to the Trophic Group of Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) from Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire)

Blei Sika Hortense, Tra Bi Crolaud Sylvain, Eba Krou Philippe, Beugre Avit Grah Maxwell, Faulet Meuwiah Betty, Niamke Lamine Sebastien, Kouame Lucien Patrice

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430153

The presence of termites in the cocoa plantations and quarries of Côte d'Ivoire poses a threat to the producers of this sector. Producer yields are insufficient to cover the strong market demand. This situation leads to food insecurity for the population. Knowledge of the specific inhibitory molecules of digestive enzymes of termites is necessary to enhance the effectiveness of insecticides to optimize crop production. The present study was aimed to characterize termite cellulases according to the trophic group. Specifically, the influence of chemical agents on the cellulase activities of four humivorous (Cubitermes fungifaber) and xylophagous termites (Nasutitermes latifrons, Microcerotermes fuscotibialis and Amitermes guineensis) collected in Daloa during the October period was investigated. Thus, the cellulase activities were measured by the spectrophotometric method in the absence and in the presence of the concentrations of 1 and 5 mM of various chemical agents. The chemical agents used behaved differently on cellulase activities. Thus, Cu2+, Pb2+ and EDTA inhibited the cellulase activity of M. fuscotibialis more than 90% at concentrations of 1 and 5 mM, respectively, indicating the presence of a metalloprotein. On the other hand, that of the other two xylophagous species was slightly inhibited. In addition, the cellulase activity of C. Fungifaber was inhibited at the two respective concentrations by Cu2+ at about 70%. In conclusion, Cu2+, pb2+ and EDTA can be used in the formulation of some specific insecticides against humivorous and xylophagous termites.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antidiabetic and Modulatory Effect of Ethanol Extract of Neem Leaf on Some Essential Biochemical Parameters of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Ezeigwe Obiajulu Christian, Ezeonu Francis Chukwuemeka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430157

The study was conducted to investigate the modulatory activity of ethanol extract of neem leaf on the essential biochemical parameters of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The 24-hour acute toxicity test of the orally administered ethanol extract was determined using Finney’s method. Diabetes was induced in the rats by a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg/kgbw of streptozotocin (STZ). Blood was collected after 28 days of treatment and used for biochemical analysis. Biochemical analysis was done using standard biochemical methods. The acute toxicity study of the ethanol extract reveal that the median lethal dose was 5.0 g/kg body weight. The anti-diabetic study carried out for a period of 28 days showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the fasting blood glucose levels of the animals treated with ethanol extract compared with the diabetic untreated rats. The urea, creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in the diabetic untreated rats compared with the groups treated with the ethanol extract of neem leaf. The serum alpha-amylase activity of the treatment groups decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the diabetic untreated group. The diabetic untreated rats showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in their insulin level compared with the insulin levels of animals treated with the ethanol extract of neem leaf. The ethanol extract of neem leaf is efficacious in lowering blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic rats by regenerating the beta cells integrity which was seen from the increase in the insulin level of the extract treated rats. It modulates the essential biochemical parameters of diabetic rats favourably towards recovery and improved health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Phytochemicals and Reducing Power of Leaf Extracts of Colocasia esculenta and Ipomoea batatas

Achadu Abraham Eleojo, Umeh Chisom Charles, Mohammed Nimat

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430158

Background: Reports has shown that edible leaves of vegetable plants serve both nutritional and medicinal purposes, yet are poorly utilized due to inadequate enlightenment of the major populace on their compositions.

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the proximate, phytochemicals and reducing power of leaf extracts of Colocasia esculenta and Ipomoea batatas.

Methodology: Washed and air dried leaf samples were milled and subjected to proximate and phytochemical analysis. Determination of calcium, iron and sodium content was by Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Reducing power was determined by the Potassium ferricyanide reducing power method.

Results: Ipomoea batatas leaves was found to be higher in moisture (14.05%) and carbohydrate (29.33%) while Colocasia esculenta leaves was higher in ash (10.00%), Crude fiber (16.27%), Fat (10.17%) and protein (29.41%). A better antioxidant activity and higher levels of all phytochemicals and minerals were observed in leaves of Colocasia esculenta compared to leaves of Ipomoea batatas.

Conclusion: This study suggests that both leaves are of importance to human nutrition considering the observed levels of nutrients, phytochemicals and antioxidant activity. While C. esculenta leaves should be preferred for its nutrient and antioxidant advantages, both leaves can contribute immensely to the daily nutrient requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Boiling on Chemicals, Phytochemicals and Nutritional Composition of Solanum nigrum L. Leaves Harvested in Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire)

Dogni Kouassi Dappah, Denis Yao N’Dri, Nestor Kouakou Kouassic, Georges N’Guessan Amani

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430159

Aims: In tropical Africa, leafy vegetables are traditionally cooked and eaten as a relish together with a starchy staple food. The current study aimed to evaluate the influence of boiling on bioactive, proximate and antinutrients compounds in Solanum nigrum leaves.

Methodology: The leaves were subjected to boiling in pressure cooker for 10, 15 and 20 min and proximate composition, minerals, nutritive and anti-nutritional components were determined according to standard methods for nutritional guidelines.

Results: The result of the study revealed that longer time of boiling (higher than 10 min) caused negative impact by reducing nutritive value but positive impact by reducing anti-nutrients. The registered losses (p < .05) at 10 min were as follows: ash (12.37%), proteins (33.69%), vitamin C (11.23 mg/ 100 g), polyphenols (125.41 mg/ 100 g) Tannins (81.96 mg/ 100 g) and Flavonoids (14.03 mg/100 g). The average increase of fibers content was (39.41%). Furthermore, after 10 min of boiling time the residual contents (p<0.05) of minerals was: Calcium (1079±29.04 to 386±78 mg/ 100 g), Phosphorus (405..24±10-508.88±2.58 mg/ 100 g), Iron (33.48±0.93–44.50±1.23 mg / 100 g) and Magnesium (572.78±19.76–662.99±27.23 mg/ 100 g).The antinutrient composition for oxalic acid were ranged 72.61±6.29 to 223.67±6.35 mg/100 g. The different ratios sodium / potassium (<1) and oxalates/calcium (<2.5) were under the respective critical value for all boiling.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the recommended time of domestic cooking must be less than 10 min for the studied leafy vegetables in order to contribute efficiently to the nutritional requirement and to the food security of Ivorian population.

Open Access Review Article

Enzyme Functional Screening, Discovery and Engineering; Automation, Metagenomics and High-throughput Approaches

Sikander Ali, Syed Shahid Hussain

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i430156

Concerned with the construction and design of novel biocatalysts, the enzyme engineering served to overcome the limitations of native enzymes, in order to create biocatalysts with tailored functions, to facilitate industrial applications. The enzymes, being recognized by screening and discovery workflows and further tailored by engineering platforms, are of immense potential as improved biocatalysts. Functional metagenomics is a powerful tool to identify novel enzymes followed by the construction of metagenome-based enzyme libraries. And the subsequent screening of these enzyme libraries is in turn facilitated by ultra-high-throughput-based, for example FACS or microfluidics, enzyme engineering technologies. Relies on the compartmentalization of reaction components, in order to detect and measure assay signal within the reaction compartments, the enzyme engineering platforms are designed which include cell-as-compartment platforms, droplet-based platforms and micro-chamber-based platforms. The metagenomics approach and high-throughput screening by these three prime enzyme engineer platforms are the focus of this review.