Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Callus Induction of Coccinia indica (W. and A) and Analysis of Its Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity - A Comparative Study

V. Jayalakshmi, J. Anbumalarmathi, S. Aruna Sharmili

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i330141

In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the phytochemical, antimicrobial, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activity of Coccinia indica (W. and A) leaf extracts using four solvents and compare it with the callus extracts. Callus was initiated from the leaf explants of C. indica with 90% efficiency using MS medium supplemented with BAP (1 mg/l) + NAA (0.2 mg/l). Successive extraction method of C.indica was found to be an efficient method of extraction and methanol was observed to be the best suited solvent for the extraction of phytochemicals and macromolecules that were responsible for antimicrobial, antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition. GC-MS analysis of C. indica has confirmed the presence of bioactive compounds (Example: 9-Octadecanoic acid, 2-octadecycloxy ethyl ester (100%) in successive methanolic callus extract) in all the extracts where the FTIR analysis has confirmed the presence of various important functional groups of the identified bioactive compounds. Successive methanol extract of callus of C. indica was found to be the potent antimicrobial agent with drug efflux pump inhibitor property against 5 bacterial strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC700603), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC 25933) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (clinical isolate) and 3 fungal strains, Candida albicans (IFM 40009), Candida tropicalis (IFM 55058) and Candida krusei (IFM 46521). Successive methanol extract of callus of C. indica was found to be an efficient antioxidant agent and an efficient α-amylase inhibitor, which proves it to be a potent anti-diabetic agent with IC50 concentration to be 82.5µg/ml. This study is one of the strong evidence for this plant to be used by the traditional practitioners as a phytopharmaceutical agent.

Open Access Original Research Article

Estimation of Serum Homocysteine and Vitamin B12 in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Roshni G. Sadaria, Smita N. Vasava, Jaydeepsinh D. Bhalgariya, Vruti J. Bhanushali, Manish Bhoi, Praneta Chandnani, Meet Chavda

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i330142

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder characterized by absolute or relative deficiencies in insulin secretion and/or insulin action associated with chronic hyperglycemia and disturbances of carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor strongly linked to cardiovascular complications in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Hcy requires 5-methyltetrahydrofolate as methyl donor and vitamin B12 as a co-factor. So, Vitamin B12 deficiency will lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Biochemical and clinical vitamin B12 deficiency has been demonstrated to be highly prevalent among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Aims: To assess the serum homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.

Methodology: The present case control study was conducted at Dhiraj hospital, Piparia, Vadodara, Gujarat, India in which 80 subjects were enrolled, out of which 40 were cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 40 were controls. The age group for the study was 35 to 70 years. Blood samples were drawn to measure RBS, HbA1c, serum homocysteine and vitamin B12. Interpretation of data was done using Medcalc software.

Results: The mean levels of serum homocysteine was higher in T2DM patients than normal healthy individuals, difference between them was statistically highly significant (p<0.0001). The mean levels of vitamin B12 was lower in T2DM patients than normal healthy individuals, difference between them was statistically highly significant (p<0.0001). There is no correlation found between Homocysteine, vitamin B12 & HbA1c.

Conclusion: A significant increase in serum Hcy level was observed in T2DM patients in our study. Raised serum Homocysteine is considered as an early marker of B12 deficiency. Hyperhomocysteinemia will lead to cardiovascular complications. Therefore, the hyperhomocysteinemia could serve as another important marker of poor diabetic control and developing complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritive Parameters Evolution of Maize Seeds Conserved by Triple Bagging System and Biopesticides (Lippia multiflora and Hyptis suaveolens Leaves) in Cote d’Ivoire

Die Gnande Romaric, Chatigre Kouamé Olivier, Fofana Ibrahim, Biego Godi Henri Maruis

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i330146

This study, initiated in Côte d'Ivoire, aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the triple bagging system associated or not with biopesticides on the conservation of biochemical parameters, in particular its nutritional potential according to a central composite design (CCD). It was carried in Côte d'Ivoire at Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Science from March 2016 to September 2017. Shelf life, biopesticides rate and interactions between shelf life and biopesticides had a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of maize. The polypropylene bag (control) had the highest values after eighteen (18) months of moisture storage (9.02% to 16.99%) and showed very high fibre losses (P<0.001) (5.78% to 4.28%), total sugars (2.62% to 1.30%), reducing sugars (0.47% to 0.27%), starch (75.20% to 46.10%), fat (5.51% to 3.33%), protein (8.60% to 6.87%), total carbohydrate (75.20% to 71.51%), ash (1.68% to 1.30%) and energy value (384.78% to 343.48%). Concerning the triple bagging system without biopesticides, the variation is similar to the treatments that received the biopesticides up to 9.5 months of storage before presenting values almost similar to the control bag after the 18 months of storage. While triple bagging systems with the presence of biopesticides after 18 months of storage show slight variations in moisture (9.02% to 12.47%), fibre (5.78% to 5.56%), total sugars (2.62% to 1,88%), reducing sugars (0.47% to 0.37%), starch (75.20% to 60.03%), fat (5.51% to 5.00%), protein (8.60% to 7.84%), total carbohydrates (75.20% to 72.69%), ash (1.68% to 1.50%) and energy value (384.78% to 368.93%). The results of these tests show that maize grains stored in the presence of biopesticides best retain their biochemical characteristics. Also, the results indicate that the rate of 1.01% biopesticides could be recommended for maintaining all biochemical parameters up to 18 months of storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Lifestyle Practices and Nutritional Status among Undergraduate Medical Students

B. N. Kruthi, H. Raghunath, M. Hamsa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i330147

Background and Objectives: Overweight and obesity are not only the biggest problem among the middle-aged but also among children, teenagers and young adults. Early detection of the factors causing obesity, in turn, helps in the prevention of its complications. The objectives of the study were to assess the various lifestyle practices among medical students and to correlate the relationship between the nutritional status and biochemical parameters.

Methods: A cross-sectional - study was conducted on MBBS students studying at Mandya Institute of Medical Sciences (MIMS), Mandya, Karnataka, India. Self-administered questionnaires were given to the students followed by the recording of their anthropometric measurements. Nutritional status was assessed using the Body Mass Index (BMI). Fasting blood sample was collected from the student and analysed the biochemical parameters.

Results: Out of 325 students, 48.9% were male students and 51.1% were female students. It was found that a higher percentage of female students (53%) was on a balanced diet as compared to male students (47.2%). The daily consumption of fruits and vegetables were less amongst students of both genders. Mean values of Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG) and Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL-C) were higher among male students as compared to female students. Mean values of few biochemical parameters like FBS, TC, TG and LDL-C were higher amongst obese students along with a corresponding decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C).

Conclusion: Our study showed that unhealthy dietary and lifestyle practices were associated with increased levels of various biochemical parameters and it was more common amongst male students. Increased biochemical parameters like FBS, TC, TG and LDL-C with the corresponding decrease in HDL-C is an alarming sign for increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease among the younger age group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Effect of Iron (II) Chloride Induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells and Its Role in Upregulation of α-Synuclein Expression

Mohammed Abba Dige, Emmanuel Paul Okoi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i330148

The α-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a pathogenic gene identified in rare familial Parkinson Disease (PD). Recent studies highlight the role of DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of familial and sporadic PD. Hypomethylation in SNCA gene has been associated with increased SNCA gene expression and was observed in post mortem brains of patients with sporadic PD. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of iron (II) chloride on SH-SY5Y cell models as pertain to cell death caused by oxidative stress, upregulation of SNCA gene expression and reduced SNCA gene methylation. Result obtained from LDH assay showed significant (p < 0.05) evidence of cell death in treated cells as compared to the control sample. Analysis for SNCA gene quantification using RT-PCR showed significant increases in fold change. Cells treated with 1000µM of FeCl₂ showed the highest fold change of 6.0 while cells treated with 250µM had the lowest fold change of 1.8. In DNA methylation assay using pyrosequencing, cells treated with varying concentrations of FeCl₂ showed significant (p < 0.05) decrease in DNA methylation. At 250µM, 500µM and 750µM concentrations of FeCl₂, an average mean methylation levels of 1.84%, 1.40% and 1.23% was obtained respectively while cells treated with 1000 µM had the lowest average mean methylation level of 1.0%. Thus, the decrease in methylation is linked to the upregulation of the SNCA gene which has been reported to be among the causative factors in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease.