Open Access Short Research Article

Study on Physico-chemical Properties of Kokum Seed (Garcinia indica) Full Fat Flour and Defatted Flour

Manoj R. Chate, D. C. Saxena, Subhash B. Kakade

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i230137

Kokum (Garcinia Indica) is an ancient fruit of India which is mostly consumed in the form of sarbat. It is mainly found in the western ghats in the state of Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala. Kokum fruit is widely used in culinary, pharmaceutical, nutraceuticals uses. Kokum has a long history in Ayurvedic medicine as it was traditionally used to cure sores, dermatitis, diarrhoea, dysentery, ear infection and to facilitate digestion. The present study conducted to study Physico-Chemical Properties of Kokum Seed (Garcinia indica) Full Fat Flour and Defatted Flour and it reveals that defatted kokum seed flour is superior in quality in terms of protein, carohydrates, crude fiber and Vitamin B3 contain as compared to kokum seed flour. We can utilise the Kokum seed defatted flour to overcome protein malnutrition problems in developing countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethnopharmacological Survey on the Consumption of the Association of Medicinal Plants-koutoukou in the City of Abidjan (Ivory Coast)

O. V. A. Ban, B. N. Djyh, C. Bahi, G. Siransy Kouakou, Coulibaly Adama

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i230136

Aims: The purpose of this study is to identify the medicinal plants used in the bistros and to determine the preference between the consumption of Koutoukou alone or the Koutoukou mixture associated with medicinal plants in the city of Abidjan.

Place and Duration: Pharmacodynamic Biochemical Laboratory, Faculty of Biosciences, University Félix Houphouët-Boigny, between December 2017 and June 2018.

Methodology: The investigation took place in the neighborhoods of Abobo, Cocody, Koumassi and Yopougon. This is an open-ended questionnaire intended for consumers of Koutoukou alone and  association of medicinal Plants-Koutoukou. The identity, the region, the marital and professional status of the consumers on the one hand, the ethnobotany of the medicinal plants used and their associations with Koutoukou on the other hand were considered.

Results: This study identified 12 species of medicinal plants commonly used in bistros. 70% of the surveyed population prefer and consume more cocktails at the expense of simple koutoukou. The Garcinia kola-Koutoukou combination is the most significantly consumed cocktail (Number of treated illnesses greater than 10).

Conclusion: This descriptive study resulted in the identification of 12 medicinal plants commonly used in the bistros of 4 Commune of the city of Abidjan and consumed in association with Koutoukou. The populations of these municipalities (70%) greatly appreciate. The Most consumed is the association of Garcinia kola-Koutoukou  for his righ rate of healing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals in Waters of Lower River Kuywa

Stephen Wekesa Muchanga, Ali Mohammed Salim

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i230138

Heavy metals are required by the biological organisms as nutrients but their availability above certain limits leads to adverse conditions such as bone, nerve and internal body organs damage like liver, high blood pressure, acute poisoning and death in animals and human beings and reduction of photosynthesis production, inhibition of seed germination and decreased crop yield in plants. River Kuywa being in a rich inorganic farming of sugarcane and maize area as well as industrial and urban environment, it is exposed to pollution. The objective was to determine the levels of heavy metal concentration using an Atomic absorption spectrometer and the effects of physicochemical parameters to the metal ions concentration which could arise from pollution. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were found to be (22.9, 23.3 C̊), (7.19, 4.34), (312.43, 318.45 µS) and (201, 204 mg/L) for upstream and downstream side of pollutants entry point respectively. Chromium, Copper and Zinc ions had relatively high concentrations compared to Cadmium ions. Lead ions were below the detection limit. Chromium, Copper and Zinc had (0.2660 ppm, 0.4276 ppm), (0.1306 ppm, 0.085 ppm) and (0.1369 ppm, 0.1395 ppm) while Cadmium had (0.0684 ppm, 0.0513 ppm) for upstream and downstream respectively. All physicochemical parameters were within WHO limits except pH. Chromium and Cadmium concentrations were above WHO limits while Copper and Zinc were below. Chromium had elevated concentration compared to other metals. There should be continuous and close monitoring of Chromium levels by reducing the factors leading to high rate of rock weathering and leaching. The water having Chromium and Cadmium concentrations above recommended limits, it should be treated first for Quality Assurance before it is consumed. Agencies like NEMA and WARMA should increase water quality surveillance operations for surface water.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Nutritional Composition of Six Musa acuminata Pulp Varieties Available in Zaria, Nigeria

Olubukola Beatrice Aina, Tayo Micheal Anjuwon, Mohammed Nasir Shuaibu, Olumuyiwa Adeyemi Owolabi, Dorcas Bolanle James

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i230139

Banana is one of the most widely distributed and consumed fruit in tropical and subtropical countries. In this study, six Musa acuminata varieties locally available in Zaria, Nigeria, were evaluated to determine their nutritional composition. Results from proximate composition demonstrated that lipid content was profoundly (p<0.05) lower in Musa acuminata Red, calorie value was statistically (p<0.05) lower in Musa acuminata AAB (Omini white) compared to all other species analyzed. Amino acid analysis indicated that histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the M. acuminata Red compared to other varieties in this study. Vitamin study showed that Musa acuminata Red had significant (p<0.05) higher contents of vitamins A, B3, C and E but significantly (p<0.05) lower in B1. Vitamin B1 was significantly (p<0.05) higher in M. acuminata AAA (Saro), while M. acuminata AAB (Omini white) was significantly (p<0.05) lower in Vitamin A. Mineral analysis showed that Musa acuminata Red was statistical (p<0.05) higher in potassium, iron, magnesium, calcium in comparison to other varieties of Musa acuminata pulp analyzed. In conclusion, high nutrient composition of Musa acuminata Red may be more advantageous over other varieties for use as functional food.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ceruloplasmin and Alkaline Phosphatase Levels in Preterm Delivery

A. Kondhalkar, K. More, S. Kumar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v28i230140

Introduction: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm babies are prone to serious illness or death during the neonatal period. PTB is one of the unresolved problems in clinical obstetrics and one of the greatest threats to the developing fetus, there is need to determine predictive biomarker for preterm delivery. Therefore present study aimed to assess serum levels of ceruloplasmin and Alkaline phosphatase in preterm and full-term delivery.

Materials and Methods: The present study includes total 80 subjects that comprise forty women presenting with preterm onset of labor followed by delivery and forty women who delivered at term served as controls. Blood Samples from the subjects were obtained for ceruloplasmin and Alkaline phosphatase estimation, when patient was in labor. Serum ceruloplasmin and alkaline phosphatase measured spectrophotometrically. Serum ceruloplasmin was estimated by Herbert A Ravin and Henry et al. method. Serum alkaline phosphatase was estimated by Kinetic p-NPP method.

Results: Serum ceruloplasmin levels were significantly increased (P<0.001) in preterm delivery as compared to full term delivery. Alkaline phosphatase levels are significantly increased in preterm delivery (p<0.001) as compared to full term delivery.

Conclusion: Our study showed that elevated levels of ceruloplasmin and alkaline phosphatase may be associated with preterm delivery in asymptomatic pregnant women. The elevated ALP may be due to mild chronic subclinical infection which may be responsible for preterm delivery. Ceruloplasmin is acute phase reactant, increased due to an antioxidant defence mechanism against oxidative stress.