Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, Elemental and Proximate Analysis of Maerua angolensis (Capparaceaea) Stem Bark

Ezekiel Tagwi Williams, Nachana’a Timothy, Attama Chika

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430126

This work was designed to explore the phytochemicals, elemental and proximate analysis of Maerua angolensis Stem bark were determined using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening showed alkaloid (271.30 mg /100 g), tannins (340.25 mg /100 g), flavonoid (176.85 mg /100 g), reducing sugar (41.20 mg /100 g), glycosides (184.30 mg /100 g), steroids (112.30 mg /100 g), anthraquinones (167.85 mg /100 g) and saponin (225.61 mg /100 g). Also the elemental analysis carried out revealed that the concentration of Manganese (0.02 9 mg/kg), Copper (0.059 mg/kg), Calcium (0.070 mg/kg), Sodium (7.530 mg/kg), Zinc (0.028 mg/kg), Chromium (0.158 mg/kg), Lead (0.007 mg/kg), Iron (0.100 mg/kg) and Magnesium (0.020 mg/kg). The result of the proximate composition showed  that the moisture, fat, crude protein, crude fibre, ash, carbohydrate and energy value content of the samples were 3.58±0.04%, 6.25±0.09%, 21.79±0.26%, 48.51±2.31%, 13.28±1.86%, 6.60±1.79% and 169.81±8.49  kcal/100 g respectively. The pH value obtained was 5.65±0.09. These indicate that the plant can be effective source for drugs. The elemental and proximate analysis shows that it contained appreciable amount of nutrients which could be included in diets to supplement human daily nutrient needs and animal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Combination Therapy of Garcinia kola Seed and Vitamin E in Acetaminophen Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Albino Rats

H. A. Waribo, E. S. Bartimaeus, N. Nduka, H. U. Nwanjo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430127

Acetaminophen, used for antipyretic and analgesic purposes has been known to exhibit   toxic effects on the organs because of its ability to generate free radicals, causing varieties of diseases. This study investigated the impact of the combined formed of Garcinia kola seed and Vitamin E pretreatment exposure on hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by acetaminophen in Albino Rats. Five groups of animals were used for this study. Group 1 as the control received distilled water orally only, group 2 as toxicity control intoxicated with 800 mg acetaminophen intraperitoneally. The other three groups were pretreated with various doses of either Garcinia kola seed extract or vitamin E or a combined form respectively by oral gavage method for 7 days before induction with acetaminophen intraperitoneally on the 8th day and sacrificed under chloroform anaethesia. Acetaminophen induction significantly rise (p<0.05) the hepatic enzyme levels (ALT, AST, and ALP) and a marked reduction of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPX) in group 2 animals when compared with the control. There was also a significant rise (p<0.05) in the MDA levels. Meanwhile the combined form of Garcinia kola seed extract and Vitamin E pretreatment exposure on the organs showed no synergetic ameliorative potentials as compared with the single pretreatment exposure with Garcinia kola and Vitamin E respectively. The morphology of the tissue cells pretreated with these combined formed exhibited features showing signs of cell damages and slow recovery from the toxicity. Therefore combining Garcinia kola and Vitamin E may lost its ameliorative and protective effect as seen in this induced acetaminophen albino rats implying that Garcinia kola seed and Vitamin E should not be taken in a combined form.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decreased Level of Nitric Oxide in Preeclamptic Pregnancy: A Relationship with PON1 Arylesterase Activity

Swati Digambar Sawant, Mukund R. Mogarekar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430128

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the status and diagnostic utility of PON1. (Paraoxonase-1) Arylesterase and nitric oxide as indicator of antioxidant status in preeclampsia.

Study Design:  Analytical case control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Department of obstretics and gynecology Department, G. M. C. Ambajogai, between July 2010 and July 2012.

Methodology: We conducted a case-control study of 57 women with preeclampsia and 57 women with uncomplicated deliveries. We measured PON1 Arylesterase activity, Nitric oxide and lipid profile.

Results: Serum levels of LDLc (low density lipoprotein cholesterol) are higher in cases than in controls and are statistically significant (p=0.023). However serum HDLc (high density lipoprotein cholesterol) levels are decreased significantly (p = 0.017). Serum PON1 Arylesterase showed significant decrease in cases152.68 KU/L versus controls 180.89 KU/L, p value=0.002.  Serum nitric oxide also showed significant decrease in cases 22.77 ± 4.792 umol/L versus controls 25.127 umol/L, p=0.010. PON1 Arylesterase activity is found to be positively correlated with serum HDL cholesterol (r = 0.449, p value< 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done.

Conclusion: Our observed results show decrease in the antioxidant PON1 Arylesterase activity point towards their role in the pathogenesis of Preeclampsia.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and Biochemical Studies of the Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Brillantaisia guianensis P. beauv on Alloxan Treated Wistar Albino Rats

Kalu E. Chinedu, Eugene N. Onyeike, Catherine C. Ikewuchi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430129

The present study was carried out on the phytochemical composition and biochemical studies of the leaf extract of Brillantaisia guinensis peuv on alloxan treated Wistar albino rats. The experimental rats were administered with 80 mg/kg body weight of alloxan, via the tail vein. After five days treatment with alloxan, the treatment with the extracts commenced. Extracts were administered orally at 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg bw (both to normal and treated rats) for twenty-one days. Metformin, which served as a standard drug was administered at 50 mg/kg. Chromatographic analysis of the phytochemical content of the leaf extract, revealed the presence of flavonoids (30.7 mg/100 g), saponins (50.6 mg/100 g), phytosterol (6.22 mg/100 g), tannins (7.50 mg/100 g) and glycosides (29.3 mg/100 g). Compared to test and normal control, the extracts dose-dependently and significantly lowered (P<0.05) plasma glucose and triglycerides, during the experimental period. This study revealed the presence of pharmacologically bioactive compounds in the leaf extract and showed that the leaf extract had a dose-dependent hypoglycemic and  hypotriglyceridemic effect on the Wistar albino rats. The findings suggest a likely protective role of the extracts against hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia thereby useful in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, obesity and other related cardiovascular diseases.

Open Access Review Article

Bioactive Peptides from Marine Molluscs – A Review

Queensley A. Eghianruwa, Omolaja R. Osoniyi, Naomi Maina, Sabina Wachira

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i430130

Marine organisms make up approximately half of the total global biodiversity, with the Mollusca containing the second largest number of species, including snails and bivalves. The marine environment is highly competitive, hostile and aggressive, which has led to the production of specific and potent bioactive compounds by the mollusca and their associated microorganisms, in a bid to protect themselves and ensure their survival. A diverse array of bioactive compounds can be isolated from the extracts of marine molluscs of which linear, cyclic, and conjugated peptides and depsipeptides form some of the most important bioactive compounds that have been well characterized and some of have already reached clinical trials or been approved for use as therapeutic agents and supplements. This review highlights some of the bioactive peptides that have been obtained from marine molluscs as well the challenges facing bioprospecting of valuable peptides from marine mollusc sources.