Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrient Composition of Brillantaisia guianensis P. Beuv Leaves

Kalu E. Chinedu, Eugene N. Onyeike, Catherine C. Ikewuchi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i330120

Aim: The quantitative nutrient composition of leaves of Brillantaisia guianensis P. beuv was investigated.

Source and Identification of Sample: The leaves of B. guianensis used in this study were harvested fresh from Ude plantation in Okon Aku, Ohafia Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria. They were identified by a Taxonomist (Dr Edwin Wosu) in the Herbarium Unit of the Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, University of Port Harcourt. 

Study Design: The study was designed, using standard methods, to determine the proximate, amino acids, minerals and vitamins composition of the leaves. 

Results: The wet leaves were high in moisture (88.4%) while the dried sample had practically no moisture, indicating that the wet leaves could easily be prone to microbial spoilage due to high water activity. Drying increased protein level from 3.50 to 28.0% and ash from 2.36 to 27.7% among other parameters. The low calorific values for wet sample (16.1 kcal/100 g) and dry sample (152.3 kcal/100 g sample) showed that the leaves are poor energy-giving foods. However, the leaves contain good amino acid profile especially the essential amino acids (valine, threonine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and tryptophan). The nutrient mineral (Na, Ca, Mg, K, Se, P, Fe) levels were high to supply the World Health Organization recommended daily allowance for adults and children. The sample contains appreciable amount of fats and water -soluble vitamins required for growth.  

Conclusion: The results show that the leaves are good sources of essential and non-essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins adequate to meet the required daily allowance for nourishment of the body.

Open Access Original Research Article

Processing of Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Extract and Effect of Storage Conditions on Some Physicochemical Properties of Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato-based Drink Extract

R. M. Omodamiro, J. C. Ani, J. M. Emetole

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i330121

The present study aims to find out the suitable storage condition of Orange-Fleshed Sweet potato (OFSP) beverage that will effectively retain the nutrient. Availability of OFSP may not necessarily translate to the bioavailability of the vitamin if the vitamin source is not optimally processed and utilized. Information about the processing and utilization of conventional white and pinkish-fleshed sweet potato, There is a paucity of information on the appropriate processing methods of OFSP and possible storage condition of such beverage. The drinks were analyzed for Total soluble solid (TSS), pH and Viscosity on the zero-day before storage. The total soluble solids (Brix) of the drink was measured with a digital refractometer (DR-122 Code No: 44-905, London). Based on the results of this study OFSP drink may be utilized and best consumed when freshly produced if there is a need to store at ambient (27ºC) conditions, it should not exceed 48hrs. If OFSP drink is stored under refrigerated (4-8ºC) condition, it should not exceed 7days to retain its nutritive and sensory attributes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Cassia occidentalis Seeds

Ezekiel Tagwi Williams, Nachana’a Timothy, Umar Abdulkadir Tugga

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i330122

Proximate composition, amino acid, mineral content, vitamin composition and anti-nutritional factors of Cassia occidentalis seed were determined using a standard method of analysis. The result showed that the seed had the following proximate composition on dry weight (DW) bases: ash (39.00%), moisture content (2.00%), crude protein (18.50%), crude lipid (7.55%, Crude fibre (16.30%) and carbohydrate (16.75%). Six amino acid was detected (isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, alanine, glutamine and valine) indicating that the seed is a good source of amino acid for adult. Vitamin composition (beta- carotene, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol) were also detected in the seed. The anti-nutrient analysis showed that the seed contains total phytate (1.25 mg/100 g) oxalate (1.70 mg/100 g) and nitrate (0.82 mg/100 g). While hydrogen cyanide was not detected. Elementary analysis revealed that the seed contain Na (0.015±0.02 mg/100 g), Cu (0.028±0.04 mg/100 g), Zn (0.441±0.10 mg/100 g), Mg (2.003±0.30 mg/100 g) and Mn (0.041±0.03 mg/100 g) while Cd, Cr and Pb were not detected. Comparing the nutrients and anti-nutrient constituent with WHO and FAO values, the result indicated that the Cassia occidentalis seed had the potential to be used as a source of nutrient in alleviating macro and micronutrient deficiencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Fatty Acid Profile of Oils from Garcinia kola, Tetracarpodium conopodium and Tectona grandis

A. M. Oyekanmi, A. Adejoro, B. B. Adeleke

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i330124

The fatty acids in the oil of Garcinia kola, Tetracarpodium conopodium and Tectona grandis were determined using a Perkin Elmer Auto sampler XL gas chromatograph with FID detector and split injector operating at 220ºC. The result showed that Garcina kola contained saturated fatty acid (15.78%) monounsaturated fatty acid (33.29%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (50.92%). Tetracarpodium conopodium contained saturated fatty acid (5.72%) monounsaturated fatty acid (77.31%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (16.96%) tectona grandis contained saturated fatty acid (59.93%), monounsaturated fatty acid (24.08%) and polyunsaturated fatty acid 15.99%. The major fatty acid in Garcinia kola is oleic acid, while the major fatty acid in Tetracarpodium conopodum is paullinic acid and the major fatty acid in Tectona gradis is palmitic acid. In conclusion, the result of the fatty acid profile showed that Tetracarpodium conopodium and Garcinia kola contained high percentage of essential fatty acids while Tectona grandis also contained some essential fatty acids. Therefore the seeds oils may be useful in the food, beverages, fine chemical, oil and pharmaceutical industries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Drying Methods on Physico-chemical Properties of Hydrocolloids Isolated from Peel Flour of Some Selected Root and Tuber Crops

A. N. Ohuoba, G. I. Onwuka, R. M. Omodamiro

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i330125

Hydrocolloids isolated from the flour of peels of selected root and tuber crops were purified and their physicochemical properties were determined using standard procedures. The experimental material used was the peels of three species of Dioscorea: alata (water yam), dumentorum (trifoliate yam), rotundata (white yam) and bulbifera (aerial yam); Colocasia esculenta (cocoyam); white and yellow flesh of Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato). The fresh peels were dried under three drying method (oven, sun and air-dried). Proximate composition gave 4.4 to 10.7% for moisture content, 0.40 to 6.10% for ash content, 0.32 to 4.13% for crude fibre and in carbohydrates it ranges from 81.3 to 93.7%. There were no fat and protein in the experimental samples. Oven-dried alata peel flour gave the highest swelling index value 1.44% while, air-dried had the highest value of (4.00%) ranking the highest in foaming capacities. The highest in water and oil absorption capacities were sun-dried (2.05) dumentorum peel and rotundata peel air-dried (2.21). In emulsifying capacity and freezing-thawing stability, the highest results were observed in colocasia peel oven-dried (54.3%) and white flesh Ipomoea batatas peel sun-dried (74.3%). Yellow flesh Ipomoea batatas (0.31 g/ml) gave the lowest in bulk density. Gelation temperature ranges from 70 to 83ºC with pH of 6.6 to 7.6.