Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

Konsam Photan Singh, L. Shaini, Th. Sachin Deba Singh, Victoria Kshetrimayum, Saishaym Sadanandam, Wahengbam Diana

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i130110

Aim: The aim of our study was to estimate the level of HbA1c in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). To determine any correlation between HbA1c, admission blood glucose (Random blood sugar), serum lipid profile among the cases and to evaluate the outcome during hospitalization.

Study Design and Setting: Cohort study.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Biochemistry and General Medicine including ICCU and Cardiology unit, RIMS, Imphal, between September 2015 to August 2017.

Methodology: Data were collected from 98 patients admitted in Medicine ward who were diagnosed with ACS irrespective of their diabetes status and they were divided into three groups according to their HbA1c levels (<5.7%, 5.7-6.4%, > 6.5%). The blood samples collected by venipuncture were analyzed for HbA1c level, done by RANDOX HbA1c Rx series (latex agglutination inhibition assay), admission blood glucose (measured by Trinder’s method) and serum lipid profile (RANDOX enzymatic Endpoint Method Rx series). The data were analyzed using statistical tools like Chi Square test, Independent sample t test, Pearson’s Correlation, Fisher’s exact test through SPSS 21.0.

Results: Majority of the patients were men (72.4%) & (27.6%) women and in the age group of 51-65 years. The mean age is 62.14 years. 54.1% of the ACS patients were already diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus whereas 45.9% were non-diabetic. Out of 98 patients, 60 had HbA1c level in the diabetic range (≥6.5%), 25 in the pre-diabetic range (5.7-6.4%) and the remaining 13 were within normal range (<5.7%). Admission blood glucose, total cholesterol and LDL were positively correlated with HbA1c value.

Conclusion: The mortality of the ACS patients irrespective of diabetic status during hospitalization was associated with HbA1c value irrespective of diabetic status during hospitalization. However, it was not associated with thirty days mortality.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antioxidant Capabilities and Vitamin Levels in Beef, Chicken and Fish Homogenates

Wopara, Iheanyichukwu, K. Mobisson Samuel, A. Dike, Josephine, F. M. Awah, Ike, Amanda, C. Awarajih, Uwaezuoke

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i130111

In this modern era of functional food research, there are possibilities that we could eat not only to derive nutritional values but also to get well. In this study, the antioxidant and vitamin level in fish, beef and chicken homogenates were determined using various assays. The results showed that vitamin E levels in fish homogenate (34.47 ± 1.04 µg/dL) were significantly high (p<0.05) compared with chicken homogenate (29.55 ± 4.84 µg\dL), and beef homogenate (19.16 ± 0.96 µg/dL). Also the vitamin C levels in the beef homogenates (51.12 ± 3.74) was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to the chicken homogenates (28.60 ± 2.42 mg/dL) and fish homogenates (26.39 ± 1.63). However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the vitamin C levels between the fish and chicken homogenates. The fish and chicken homogenate showed significant dose-dependent DPPH radical inhibiting capacities, inhibiting  17.55 ± 3.71% and 16.61 ± 2.22%  of DPPH at a concentration of 15 mg/mL compared to the meat homogenate which inhibited 11.68 ± 1.78% at the same concentration. The IC50 of superoxide anion radical inhibition was found to be significantly lower (p<0.05) for the chicken and meat homogenate compared to the fish homogenate. From this experiment it can be postulated that fish and beef have a higher antioxidant levels compared to chicken and could be better source of functional foods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Leptin and Prolactin in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Roshni G. Sadaria, B. V. Ravi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i130112

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequent endocrine disorders among women at reproductive age and is characterized by infertility, hirsutism, obesity, insulin resistance, and menstrual irregularities. Leptin, an adipocyte derived hormone, serves as a link relaying metabolic signals to the neuronal networks in the brain to modulate hypothalamo-pituitary- ovarian axis. Circulating leptin correlates strongly with obesity, which is frequently associated with PCOS. PCOS is associated with hyperandrogenemia and relatively high estrogen levels, which could stimulate prolactin secretion.

Aims: 1. To assess serum leptin and prolactin in women with PCOS and to compare them with healthy women as controls. 2. To correlate the leptin, prolactin and body mass index (BMI) among a group of PCOS women and healthy women as controls.

Methodology: The study was conducted at Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences & Hospital, Bangalore. A comparative study was conducted which includes 30 women who has diagnosed with PCOS and 30 healthy women with as controls. The age group for the study was 18 to 35 years. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum leptin and prolactin. BMI was also calculated. Interpretation of data was done using SPSS version 13.

Results: Significant positive correlations between leptin levels and BMI in cases and controls (ρ= 0.683, p < 0.001; ρ= 0.485, p = 0.007 respectively) were observed. Mean BMI, leptin and prolactin were found elevated in the PCOS women compared to controls but they were not statistically significant. No significant correlation was found between leptin and prolactin.

Conclusion: Leptin levels were correlated with BMI both in PCOS women and in the healthy controls. Leptin may not have a direct role in the pathogenesis of PCOS, as the serum levels were not significantly higher in PCOS women and did not correlate with prolactin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition, Nutritional Values and Antibacterial Activities of Watermelon Seed (Citrullus lanatus)

Asoso Oluwakemi Sola, Ogunmefun Olayinka Temitayo, Adelegan Olufunke, Farida Shittu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i130113

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based on the theories, beliefs and experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or treatment of physical and mental illness. Plants are traditionally used for treatment of bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, nutritional evaluation and antibacterial activities of watermelon seeds. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of watermelon indicated that alkaloids were moderately present, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and phenols were all present. The quantitative analysis of watermelon indicated 3.080 mg/g for alkaloids, 0.304mg/g for phenols, 0.117 mg/g for tannins, 0.200mg/g for saponins and 2.675 mg/g for flavonoids.  The vitamin composition of watermelon seeds indicated 0.03 mg/100 g for vitaminB1, 0.01 vitaminB2, 0.64 mg/100g for vitaminB3, 0.24 mg /100 g vitaminB6 and 0.01 for vitaminB12.The bioactivities of extract were tested, against Proteus mirabilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Necropsobacter rosorum, Tsukamurella hongkongensis, Lactobacillus sp, Staphylococcus petrasii, Neisseria sicca, Dietzi amaris, Pseudomonas oryzyhabitans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Advenella incenata, Neiserria subflava and Serriatia marcescens. Researchers are advised to turn their attention towards plants products, which is most promising area in search of new biologically activity compounds with better activity against multi drug resistant strains and reduced antibiotic related side effects.

Open Access Review Article

Toxic Mechanisms of Aryloxyphenoxypropionates in Target and Non-target Organisms

Ayokanmi Ore, Ebenezer Tunde Olayinka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v27i130109

Herbicides are substances used to control unwanted plants-weeds. They can be classified into several classes by mechanism of action. This review describes the members of aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides, their pharmacokinetic properties, metabolism and their mechanism of phytotoxicity in target weeds as well as in non-target organisms. Two major toxicity mechanisms are described. The first is by inhibition of lipid synthesis. This is achieved by inhibiting the rate limiting step of lipid biosynthesis catalyzed by acetyl CoA carboxylase. The second mechanism is by induction of oxidative stress. This is achieved by generation of reactive oxygen species which in excess can cause oxidative damage to macromolecules and cellular structures especially the membrane lipids. Loss of vital membrane lipids alters the fluidity of membrane, loss of cellular contents and eventually cell death and death of the entire plant.