Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of Staphylococcal Activity of Garcinia kola Almonds

Ouattara Karamoko, Dibi Koffi Saint Didier, Kone Monon, Ouattara Abou, Bagre Issa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v26i430107

The emergence of infectious diseases, particularly staphylococcal infections, treatment failures and the more high cost of treatment of infections caused by resistant staphylococci called to find other care alternatives. This study was initiated to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract from Garcinia kola almonds on the in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus strains. The methods of diffusion in agar and liquid media were used for susceptibility testing and MIC and MBC determination. The tests were performed on four strains of S. aureus and one reference strain. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the extracts ranged from 3.12 mg/mL and 12.5 mg/mL and the minimum bactericidal concentrations between 6.25 mg/mL and 25 mg/mL. The lowest value of MIC and MBC was observed with S. aureus ATCC 29213 while the greatest value of these same parameters was obtained on S. aureus 993C/18 and S. aureus 1075C/18. The aqueous almonds extract of Garcinia kola had a bactericidal activity on all the strains of S. aureus studied. This could justify the use of Garcinia kola almonds in the treatment of various diseases in traditional society.

Open Access Original Research Article

Substrate Specificity at the Molybdenum Site in Xanthine Oxidase Enzyme

Temesgen Nurlign Chekol

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-25
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v26i430102

Xanthine oxidase is one of the most useful molybdenum containing enzymes, which catalyzes a wide range of purine derivative heterocyclic substrates. In order for the interaction between the reactants to take place, the substrates are expected to enter the binding pocket and attain a proper orientation with the help of binding pocket amino acid residues. In addition to the binding pocket amino acids, there are several factors that affect the progression of substrates. Therefore, the study is mainly focused to identify the factors affecting the binding stage of catalysis. The activity of xanthine oxidase family enzymes greatly depends on the proper orientation of the substrates and their interaction sites. Therefore, the rate of formation of substrate- enzyme complex is proposed to be affected by the proper orientation and the interaction site of the substrate. Moreover, the keto and enol forms of substrates as well as the existence of the substituent groups affect the reactivity of xanthine oxidase. Thus, the rate of the reaction is proposed to be affected by these factors. The variable activities of the substrates towards xanthine oxidase enzyme are largely due to the factors that affect the reductive half-reaction such as proper orientation of substrates, binding sites, activation of the active site, toutomeric nature of substrates and the inductive and steric effects. This work is used to provide valuable information that may have a mechanistic importance in establishing the substrate preferences of bmXOR to RcXDH and AOR type of enzymes in order to relate electronic structure contributions to enzymatic catalysis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on the Effects of Carbonated Soft Drink Additives and Simultaneous Consumption of Carbonated Soft Drink with Ascorbic Acid on Histological Parameters of Male Mice

O. P. Femi-Oloye, A. M. Olatunji-Ojo, A. Owoloye, B. Adewumi, B. O. Ibitoye, F. F. Oloye, F. A. Gbore

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v26i430103

Sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid are the most significant additives in carbonated soft drink. The effect of consuming these additives singly and simultaneous consumption of carbonated soft drink with ascorbic acid were investigated to understand histopathological alterations in both liver cells and testis. Expermental mice were grouped into 7 different sets and five of the groups were adminstered 4 mg/kg body weight of the treatments, while the other two groups served as normal and vehicle control. The histological results reveal presence of activated Kupffer cells, sinusoidal widening and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the liver of mice exposed to carbonated soft drink, sodium benzoate and sodium benzoate with ascorbic acid, while in addition to these, there were severe cellular  and granular casts in group administered carbonated soft drink with ascorbic acid. Severe cellular casts and granular cast is an indication of hepatic diseases. Carbonated soft drink, sodium benzoate, ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate with ascorbic acid did not alter the histopathology of the testis, but simultaneous consumption of carbonated soft drink with ascorbic acid might prevent the formation of new stem cells and may hinder them from dividing to specialized cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Glycemic Index and Glycemic Loads of Commonly Consumed Food Items of Cassava and Sweet Potato of Bench Maji Zone, South West Ethiopia 2017

Mathewos Geneto Abiche, Melkamu Beyene Teferi, Selass Kebede Olbamo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v26i430104

Introduction: Glycemic index is an important parameter designed to quantify the relative blood glucose response of foods in comparison with reference glucose. Determination of glycemic index and loads of carbohydrate- rich foods play as tools of nutritional guidelines for glycemic control and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine glycemic index and glycemic loads of cassava and sweet potato of commonly consumed food items of Bench-Maji, south west Ethiopia.

Materials and Methods: The 23 healthy subjects were participated in the study from Ethiopia; the mean age was 27 ± 2 years. The matured cassava and sweet potato food items were processed by washed, peeled and cooked in water (gentle boiling at 90 Co) for 20 minutes. Participants were informed to consume 50 g of carbohydrate portions of tested and reference foods. Blood sample were collected at 0 (fasting), 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestion of tested and reference foods. Glycemic index value of foods was calculated from the ratio of incremental area under the glucose curves of the foods. Glycemic loads for each food was determined from its glycemic index value and carbohydrate content. Data were statistically analysed by ANOVA and differences between means identified by the student t-test.

Results: The cassava and sweet potato had a medium glycemic indices (GI: 60), in spite of they generated a high glycemic loads of 26 and 24 respectively. The cassava and sweet potato had significantly lower (p<0.0001) blood glucose response was noticed as compared to white bread.  There was no difference of GI and GL of tested foods within the participants and statistically not significant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that the cassava and sweet potato foods had a medium glycemic index and high glycemic loads. The tested foods had significantly lower blood glucose response as compared to reference food of white bread. The resulted GI and GL data of tested foods could be help as guide of food choices to control glycemic level and to reduce the risk of diabetic complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of a Novel Thrombin-like Enzyme, Globlase from the Venom of Gloydius blomhoffii (Japanese Mamushi)

Yumiko Komori, Yusuke Takashima, Shoko Ono, Toshiaki Nikai

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v26i430106

Aims: To elucidate the coagulation mechanisms of a novel clotting factor isolated from Gloydius blomhoffii venom, its hydrolytic activity on various substrates were examined. Furthermore the primary structure was determined and compared with the other snake venom components.

Methodology: A thrombin-like enzyme was isolated from the crude venom of G. blomhoffii by DE52 Cellulose and CM52 Cellulose column chromatography. Enzyme activity was measured by using synthetic substrates (arginine esters, MCA-substrates and 3-(Acyloxy)-4-nitrobenzoic acid). Effect on fibrinogen was detected with bovine and human fibrinogen. Isoelectric point and molecular mass were measured by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. Amino acid sequence was decided with a protein sequencer by analyzing enzymatically cleaved peptides.

Results: A clotting factor was found to be homologous as indicated by a single band on SDS-PAGE, and the final preparation was named as globlase. Molecular mass of this enzyme was determined to be 13,876.36 Da and the isoelectric point was 8.8. Globlase showed arginine ester hydrolytic activity, and specificity for substrates of thrombin. Proteolytic activity and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity were not detected. Complete amino acid sequence analysis indicated that the primary structure of globlase is similar to PLA2. However the aspartic acid which exists in the active site of PLA2 was found to be substituted by glutamine.

Conclusion: It was shown in our current investigation that globlase is a novel thrombin-like enzyme isolated from G. blomhoffii venom. It was revealed that this enzyme had structure unlike the serine-protease such as the other thrombin-like enzymes.