Open Access Short Research Article

Isolation and Characterization of Bergapten from the Root Bark of Ficus exasperata (Vahl)

O. E. Famobuwa, A. A. Agbowuro, E. A. Adekunbi, M. A. Akinwale

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i330075

Despite the wide ethnomedicinal applications of Ficus exasperata, little is known about the active principles responsible for the observed biological effects, thus limiting opportunities for further therapeutic applications. The bioassay guided chemical investigation of F. exasperata root bark resulted in the isolation of a furocoumarin (D-1) shown to be partly responsible for the acclaimed anti-diabetic effect of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Levels of Nutrients in Selected ALVs at Different Harvesting Stages and Locations of Production in Western Kenya

Makokha Grace, O. P. Owuor, D. M. K. Ongeri

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i330076

Proper nutrition contributes to declines under-five mortality rates and improves the productivity of adults. Addressing nutritional problems requires adequate information on the diets of individuals and populations. African leafy vegetables (ALVs) are widely consumed and often harvested at different stages after planting with the help of different communities. Four ALVs namely Vigna unguiculata, Amaranthus hybridus, Cleome gynandra and Solanum scabrum are commonly grown vegetables in western Kenya, their potentials have not been evaluated to supply the nutrients. However, nutritional values may vary depending on the species, harvesting stage and location of production. The effects of species, harvesting stages and location of production on the nutritional value of selected ALVs were evaluated. The trials were laid out in a randomized complete block design in three replicates in Busia, Kisumu, and Lela. Leaves were sampled at different harvesting stages and analyzed for N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn levels. Amaranthus hybridus had significantly (P≤0.05) higher levels of P, Ca, Zn, Mn, and Na. The N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe levels significantly (P≤0.05) increased then decreased with harvesting stage. The levels of nutrients significantly (P≤0.05) varied with location of production except for Na. The ALVs from Kisumu site had significantly (P≤0.05) higher levels of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and Zn, ALVs from Lela site had higher levels of Mn and Na while ALVs from Busia site had higher levels of Fe. Amaranthus hybridus is a better contributor of-of P, Ca, Zn, Mn, and Na. The Fe, Mg and Zn levels were above the Recommended Dietary Allowance and may be used to alleviate deficiencies associated with such nutrients. Harvesting the ALVs at the stage the nutrients attain their optimum levels is recommended. There is a need for the development of regional food composition tables for all ALVs in Kenya.

Open Access Original Research Article

Protective Effect of Dorema glabrum on Induced Oxidative Stress by Diazinon in Hippocampus of Rat

Mina Adampourezare, Parisa Sistani, Homeira Hatami Nemati

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i330077

Introduction: Diazinon (DZN) administration produces lipid peroxidation as an indicator of oxidative stress in the brain. Some medicinal plants such as Dorema glabrum has antioxidant properties, so can be used as an antioxidant that may protect neurons from oxidative stress. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of D. glabrum against DZN-induced oxidative stress in hippocampus.

Methods: Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were used in this study. The rats randomly were divided into four groups including a control group, and two groups received different doses of D. glabrum (40 and 80 mg/kg) as pre-treatment for 21 days with DZN (100 mg/Kg) that was injected intraperitoneally (ip) in last day of D. glabrum usage, and one group received only DZN. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), which are the indicators of lipid peroxidation, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) were determined in the ratsʼ hippocampus.

Results: Administration of DZN significantly increased TBARS levels and superoxide dismutase activity and decreased glutathione peroxidase activity but there were no significant changes in catalase activity in the hippocampus. Combined D. glabrum and DZN treatment, caused a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase, a significant decrease of TBARS and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and again no significant changes in catalase activity in the rats’ hippocampus when compared to the rats treated with DZN.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that D. glabrum had an amelioratory effect on oxidative stress induced by DZN.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Different Drying Techniques on the Nutrients Content of Fish Feedstuffs

T. Mamman, J. K. Ipinjolu, B. K. Shamsuddeen, H. Jibrin, U. Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i330078

The study investigated the effect of different drying techniques (air dying, oven drying and sun drying) on the proximate composition of three fish feedstuffs; Horse radish (Moringa oleifera) leaves, water lily (Pistia stratiotes) leaves and soy bean (Glysine max) seed.  The soy bean was boiled for 30 minutes at 100°C in water bath to reduce the effect of anti-nutritional factor (trypsin). Samples of each feedstuff were prepared and subjected to the three dying methods in triplicate treatments. Determination of proximate composition was carried out on the dried and fresh samples of each feedstuff. The results showed that moisture content of fresh M. oleifera  leaves (65%) and P. stratiotes leaves (85.67%)  were significantly higher (P< 0.05) than fresh G. max (2.67%). Higher crude protein content of 23.97% and 22.50% were recorded for oven-dried M. oleifera and P. stratiotes leaves and 39.21% for fresh G. max with no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the treatments. Crude lipid was significantly higher for sun dried samples of all the feedstuffs. Oven-dried samples of the three feedstuffs had the least ash, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract. The study concluded that oven drying at moderate temperature of 700C proved to be more effective in moisture removal and retention of crude protein. Furthermore, the study recommends a feeding trial to assess the potential of these feedstuffs subjected to various drying methods on growth and nutrients utilization of cultivable fish species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Gills, Bones and Muscles of Fishes from Crude Oil Polluted Water of Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria

G. S. Ikue, M. O. Monanu, N. Nwachukwu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i330079

This study was carried out to determine the concentrations of heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, zinc, manganese, lead and iron) in organs (gills, bone and muscle) of Iutjanus campechanus and Chrysichthys nigrodidatatus from Gokhana, and Khana local government areas in River State, Nigeria were investigated.

This heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result show that Iron was significantly more abundant in the gills, bone and muscle tissue than other element with mean concentration of 144-144.58 mg/kg in the gills, 18.19-39.77 mg/kg in the bone and 5.47-21.50 mg/kg in the muscle of both catfish and red snapper in Kaa while in bodo-city the concentration varies from 189-238 mg/kg in the gills, 42.16-45.39 mg/kg in the bone and 11.74-43.84 mg/kg in the muscle of both fishes respectively. Maximum concentration of Zinc was recorded in gills from Bodo-city for both fishes and minimum value was recorded in the muscle of both fish species in Kaa. High level of chromium, manganese and lead were recorded in bone of both species while the least concentration of all elements was recorded in the muscle of catfish and red snapper. It was observed that the level of metals in all organs were high except for chromium in the muscle which was lower than the permissible limits for human consumption designated by the USEPA, WHO, FAO. The result revealed that the distribution of the heavy metals follow the order Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd>Cr for Chrysichthys nigrodidatatus and Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cd>Cr for Iutjanus campechanus while the distribution in the organs follow the other Gills>bone>muscle for both fish spices in Kaa and Bodo-City respectively. This reveal the health effect the people in the study area could be exposed to by the consumption of the muscle of catfish and red snapper which have high levels of these metals. Measures need to be taken as the level of Heavy metals detected in organs from the two site posed serious threat to the populace that feed on them.