Open Access Original Research Article

Relevance of Chrysanthellum americanum (L.) Vatke Extracts in Rat Liver Protection

Samson Guenné, Nabèrè Ouattara, Nâg-Tiero Roland Meda, Prosper T. Kinda, Noufou Ouédraogo, Alin Ciobica, Adama Hilou, Martin Kiendrebéogo, Odile G. Nacoulma

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i230069

Aims: To assess the relevance of Chrysanthellum americanum (L.) Vatke extracts in rat liver protection.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry (LABIOCA), also in Laboratory of Department of Medicine and Traditional Pharmacopoeia (MEPHATRA-PH) of Institute for Research in Health Sciences (IRSS/CNRST) of Burkina Faso between July 2014 and August 2015.

Study Design: Polyphenolic extract of Chrysanthellum americanum- in vivo liver protection- in vivo liver intoxication- liver necrosis parameters analysis, histopathology analysis, in vivo and in vitro antioxidant assay.

Background: Chrysanthellum americanum L. (Vatke) is a medicinal plant well known for its flavonoids and saponins richness, but also for its strong antioxidant potential and use traditionally for liver disease treatment.

Methodology: In vivo, anti hepatotoxicity effects of Chrysanthellum americanum was evaluated using CCl4 as hepatotoxic agent. Also, acute toxicities were determined using standards methods, serum parameters of liver injury using Cypress Diagnostics kits and histopathology analysis using Mayer's haematoxylin- eosin-phloxine coloration method. For in vitro tests, malondialdehyde and thiobarbituric acid method were used in lipid peroxidation assessment and the ABTS method in Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity assessing.

Results: Result showed that the crude extract of C. americericum has a very low oral toxicity but, in intraperitoneal route this extract presented a high toxicity (LD50= 175 mg / kg of body weight). Histopathology micrograph indicated reduction in number of necrotic cells induced by CCl4. This beneficial action was confirmed by reduction in serum transaminases and malondialdehyde (22.68 ± 0.68 mmol MDA/ g of liver weight). In vitro antioxidant capacities, this plant extract presented a result of 35.01 ± 0.26 % and 42.01 ± 0.26 mg TE/ g respectively in LPO and TEAC.

Conclusion: Given our results, our research confirms that Chrysanthellum americanum extracts have in vivo physiological impact and benefits in traditional medicine for specific care of liver diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition and in vitro Antioxidant Activity of Golden Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Seeds for Functional Food Application

Ibidapo P. Olubunmi, A. Alagbe Olajumoke, J. Awogbemi Bamidele, O. Fatunmibi Omolara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i230070

Aim: Golden melon (Cucumis melo) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the family of Cucurbitaceae (Cucurbit). This study was carried out to evaluate the phytochemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of golden melon seed extract.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out between a period of July and August 2017 at Baking Milling Division, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi Nigeria. 

Methodology: The crude methanolic extracts of the seed were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities according to standard analytical procedure. The antioxidant potential of the seed extracts was examined using different assays by determining total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, total antioxidant capacity. The free radical scavenging activities of the extract such as 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)  radical scavenging activity,  in vitro lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging assay were determined spectrophotometrically.

Results: The phytochemical screening of the seed extracts revealed the presence of some secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenolic, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. The total phenolic content of extract was found to be 29.39 mg/100 g while the amount of total flavonoid content was 20.67 mg/100 g. Scavenging ability was observed to increase in proportion to concentration for all the scavenging assays and at the highest concentration of 100 µg/ml. Total antioxidant capacity assay showed 19.44 mg per 100 g. This high scavenging ability in the seed extracts may be attributed to the presence of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in the extract. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 100µg/ml Cucumis melo extract was 75.20% ± 0.72 while the reference standard (Ascorbic acid) was 83.24% ±0.31. Lipid peroxidation inhibition ability of 100 µg/ml Cucumis melo extract was 87.18% ± 0.16 while the standard (ascorbic acid) was 94.96% ± 0.16 at the same concentration. Results obtained from this study showed that the nitric oxide scavenging ability of the extract was 80.50%±0.63 while the standard antioxidant was 85.94% ± 0.54.

Conclusion: In all the assays, Cucumis melo extract showed maximum percentage of antioxidant potentials at 100 µg/ml. Additionally, golden melon seed possess appreciable amount of phenols and high antioxidant properties which could be explored and incorporated in functional food applications particularly in baked products. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Extracts of Guiera senegalensis J.F. Gmel (Combretaceae) Galls Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus Rats Status

Pierre Alexandre Eric Djifaby Sombié, Rahman Hafizur, Martin Kiendrébéogo, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary, Odile Germaine Nacoulma

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i230071

Background: A good number of medicinal and dietary plants are used for diabetes treatment in Burkina Faso.

Aim of the Study: The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of Guiera senegalensis galls extracts and its potential mechanisms in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: The methanol extract was administered by gavage to healthy Wistar rats for the determination of toxicity, to normal and diabetic Wistar rats for the determination of glucose reduction level, lipid profile, insulin level and glycaemic parameters in serum. The histology and immunohistochemistry of the pancreas were also determined.

Results: The acute toxicity results showed that the medium lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol galls extract of Guiera senegalensis is greater than 2000 mg/kg body weight in rats. Guiera senegalensis methanolic extract (250 mg/kg) and the tolbutamide (100 mg/kg) recorded a significantly (p < 0.05) lower level of triglyceride compared to the diabetic group. The methanol extract (250 and 500 mg/kg pc) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the blood glucose level and increased the serum insulin level in diabetic rats. Interestingly, improved ß-cell function and antioxidant status were also observed in G. senegalensis-treated diabetic rats when compared to tolbutamide-treated diabetic rats.

Conclusion: These data showed direct evidence that G. senegalensis has antidiabetic activity by decreasing blood glucose level, improving insulin secretion and β-cell functions and modulating antioxidant status.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Efficacy of Aloe vera (Linn) and Aloe schweinfurthii (Baker) Powdered Leaf Extracts in the Control of Some Plant Fungal Pathogens

A. O. Alejo, A. M. Ajayi, B. O. Akinyele

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i230072

Evaluation of the relative efficacy of powdered leaf extracts of Aloe vera (Linn) and Aloe schweinfurthii (Baker) in the control of some plant pathogens was undertaken in this work. Antimicrobial activities of the extracts obtained using cold water, hot water and ethanol were tested against four fungal spp., namely, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Trichophyton rubrum. The phytochemical screening of the leaf extracts of the two aloe species revealed the presence of bioactive compounds such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phytates and oxalates. The extracts were observed to exhibit varying inhibitory effects on the selected fungi. Ethanolic extract of A. vera at 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml had the greatest impact on A. solani and C. lindemuthianum respectively. Similarly, cold water extract of A. schweinfurthii at 100 mg/ml was the most effective against S. rolfsii and T. rubrum. However, hot water extract of A. vera was least effective against C. lindemuthianum. Also, the efficacy of cold water extract of A. schweinfurthii at 50 mg/ml was very low against T. rubrum and A. solani. The hot water extract of A. schweinfurthii at 20 mg/ml also showed the least effect against S. rolfsii. Consequently, extracts from both Aloe species can be recommended in the management of the four fungal pathogens evaluated in this study. It is hoped that in no distant future, botanical fungicides would be developed from the two Aloe species.

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphisms T-786c & 27bp (4b/4a) with Obesity in Egypt

Rizk Elbaz, Lamiaa A. A. Barakat, Ahmed Nageb, Mohamed Sherif

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i230073

Background and Objective: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism (eNOS) is one of three isoforms that synthesize nitric oxide (NO), that participates in several biological processes have been associated with obesity.  This study was undertaken to determine if eNOS gene (T786C) and 27bp (4b/4a) were associated with susceptibility of obesity.

Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 200 cases divided into 100 obese patient and 100 healthy as control. The mean age cases was (27.02 ± 10.90) they include 79 female and 21 males. All participants were subjected to an estimation of their body mass index (BMI), weight hip ratio (WHR), in addition to random blood sugar (RBS), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (LDH). DNA was amplified using PCR-SSP for detection of relation between polymorphism and endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene in two parts T786C and 27bp (4b/4a).

Results: All cases showed that there were significant difference between cases and controls regarding to their chemical lab’s analysis (TG, Cholesterol, LDL and HDL).All cases showed significant frequency of T786C TT, CC, TC vs. controls (p<0.001) these was considered risk factor for disease. On the other hand there no significant difference between 27bp aa, bb, and ab (p=0.618) vs. controls.

Conclusion: The polymorphism T786C not the 27bp in eNOS was associated with obesity.