Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Acacia nilotica Stem-Bark Fractions against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

R. D. Jabaka, S. B. Manga, Attah, D. Daniel, U. D. Nuhu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i130064

Aims: This research was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of Acacia nilotica stem bark extract and bioactive fractions against the test bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli).

Place and Duration of Study: Acacia nilotica was collected within Aliero town, Kebbi State, Nigeria between April and September, 2017.

Methodology: The crude and bioactive fractions were obtained using soxhlet extraction and column chromatographic method respectively. The qualitative phytochemical screening was conducted to detect the presence of some phytochemical constituents in the crude extract and fractions. The antibacterial activity was determined at various concentrations (10, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/ml) using disc diffusion method.

Results: The crude antibacterial activity indicated that ethanol extract showed higher activity than the n-hexane extract with 14.0±0.00 and 12.0±0.00 mm zones of inhibition compared with the control drug (10 µg Ciprofloxacin drug), which showed 14.0±0.00 and 13.0±0.00 mm zone of inhibition against the test bacteria. The MIC and MBC values determined for ethanol extracts against the test bacteria was 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml, while the MIC and MBC values obtained for n-hexane extracts were 25 and 50 mg/ml against the test bacteria. The bioactive fractions (Yellow, Purple and Blue Black Fractions) tested against the test bacteria showed higher activity compared with the crude extract. The phytochemical properties of the plant crude extract and the bioactive fractions indicated the presence of phenol, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids and glycosides and  this attributed to the high antibacterial activities of 17.0±0.00 and 16.0±0.00 mm showed by the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus and 15.67± and 14.0±0.00 mm against Escherichia coli respectively.

Conclusion: Acacia nilotica crude extract and fractions exhibited antibacterial activity which was comparable to the standard drug ciprofloxacin. This validates the folkloric medicinal use of this plant by the indigenous people of Aliero, Kebbi State.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evalution of Anti-Diabetic Potential of Aqueous Extract of “Luffa cylindrica” (Native Sponge/Sponge Gourd) Leaf and Seed on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Luka, C. D. Abigail, E. A. Metuaghan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i130065

The study was carried out to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of Luffa cylindrical (native sponge /sponge gourd) seed and leaf extracts in alloxan- induced diabetic rats. Sixteen experimental rats were divided into four groups of four rats each: a, diabetic control; b, normal control; c, diabetic rats treated with seed extract (400 mg/kg) and d, diabetic rats treated with leaf extract (400 mg/kg). The groups A, C and D rats were induced with diabetes intraperitoneally with alloxan (150 mg/kg bw). Phytochemical screening was carried out on the plant seed and leaf extracts and the following biochemical tests were carried out: blood glucose, serum lipid profile, serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid and some electrolytes like Na+, K+, HCO3-, and Cl- the administration of alloxan to experimental rats resulted in an increased level of most biochemical parameters; blood glucose, serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase and serum alkaline phosphatase, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, creatinine, urea and uric acid. Luffa cylindrica seed and leaf extracts was administered to groups c and d diabetic rats respectively for two weeks, results were compared with normal control and diabetic control rats these parameters were found to be significantly (p<0.05) high in the diabetic groups than in the normal control groups. Treatment with the plant extract significantly (p<0.05) reduced elevated blood levels of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatinine, urea, uric acid associated with alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The plant tested positive for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins, negative for cardiac glycosides, phenols, resins, terpenes and steroids. Extracts of Luffa cylindrica seed and leaf has shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects generally on alloxan induced diabetic rats. The study’s findings has shown that the plant possess hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic property and has supported the traditional use of Luffa cylindrica plant in the management of diabetes and its complications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Crude Methanol Extract of Phoenix dactylifera Seeds on Clinical Isolates of Different Strains of E. coli

C. Eze Chinelo, N. Ezeibe Ezinwanne, A. Ozioko Chizoba, C. Agbo Martina, N. Ugwu Chineye, A. Evuruani Somtochukwu, L. Ilouno Uchechi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i130066

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of seed extract of Phoenix dactylifera.

Study Design: Extraction of active ingredients of Phoenix dactylifera seeds using methanol and its effects on selected clinical isolates and isolated strains of E. coli.

Place and Duration of Study: `Department of Phatrmaceutical Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, University of Nigeria, Nsukka between march 2017 and October 2018.

Methodology: The seed of phoenix dactylifera were washed thoroughly to get rid of any adhering date flesh, air dried and ground. The ground powders were subjected to extraction by cold maceration using methanol. Preliminary sensitivity test was carried out against eight microorganisms, namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Staph. spp, Salmonella spp, Bacillus sp and Candida albicans using agar diffusion method. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out on isolated strains of E. coli from urine samples using agar diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of crude methanol extract of seeds of Phoenix dactylifera were determined using agar diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis was conducted to determine the secondary metabolites.

Results: The preliminary sensitivity test performed shows that the crude methanol extract of date seed were sensitive against all organisms tested. The active ingredients of the extract showed activities against all strains of E. coli tested though their zones of inhibition vary (18-21mm). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value ranges from 10-19.9 mg/ml. The phytochemical analysis of crude methanol seed extract of P. dacterifera indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, reducing sugar, sterols and Terpenes, Anthraquinone glycosides.

Conclusion: The present study provides the scientific information about Phoenix dactylifera seed activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Treatment of Diabetic Condition in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Wister Rats Using Food Blends Such as Unripe Plantain, Soybean and Ginger

I. Iwanegbe, M. Suleiman, A. Jimah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i130067

Aims: To investigate the effect of food blends (plantain, soybean and ginger) on the blood glucose, lipid profile and haematological indices on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: A total of 35 rats of mean body weight 219.07 g separated into7 groups (5 per group) where induced by a single intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of streptozotocin (0.1 g dissolved in 5 ml of freshly prepared sodium citrate buffer 0.1 M, pH 4.5) at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight after fasting for 12 hours and fed with flours/blends. The flours were produced from plant materials for different treatments/blends (blend A=100% unripe plantain, B=80% unripe plantain, 14% soybean, 6% ginger, C=70% unripe plantain, 26% soybean, 4% ginger, D= 60% unripe plantain, 38% soybean, 2% ginger, E= 50% unripe plantain, 50% soybean) and the phytochemicals and minerals content were determined. Blood glucose was determined at 5 days interval for 25 days. Diabetes was confirmed in rats with blood glucose concentrations >200 mg/dl. After 25 days rats were anaesthetized with chloroform vapour and blood samples collected by cardiac puncture for haematology and lipid profile determination.

Results: The results showed that unripe plantain, soya beans and ginger in adequate proportion(C=70% unripe plantain, 26% soybean, 4% ginger or D= 60% unripe plantain, 38% soybean, 2% ginger) could help to reduce blood glucose, improve haematological parameters and lipid profile. Significant reduction was observed in the blood glucose level of rats fed blends C and D from 286 to 85 mg/dl and 307 to 90 mg/dl respectively at the end of experiment. These results also demonstrated that the inclusion of ginger at 6% causes rise in blood glucose level. Total cholesterol (TC) increased in all the blends. However, the lowest concentration of TC was observed in blends C and D. The highest packed cell volume (60%) and Haemoglobin (20 g/dl) level observed in rats fed blend C was significantly higher than the normal control fed conventional feeds. The increase in packed cell volume (PCV) (50%) and Hb (17 g/dl) in diabetic rats demonstrated that the formulated blend C was able to raise PCV and Hb above 50% and 17 g/dl (Normal control NC) respectively. Significant increase (P<0.05) in low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) was also observed in all the blends with blend C having the least (4.0 mg/dl) close to NC (2.0 mg/dl).

Conclusion: From the results it is evident that blend C will manage and improve the health status of diabetic patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Galantamine, Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Content of Galanthus Species in Turkey

Ibrahim Bulduk, Yasemin Sunucu Karafakıoğlu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2019/v25i130068

Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activities in Galanthus species (Gaalanthus woronowii, Galanthus nivalis, and Galanthus elwesii) indigenous to Turkey.

Study Design: The plant materials used in the study, Galanthus elwesii samples were collected in Antalya province, Galanthus nivalis samples were collected in Istanbul province, and Galanthus woronowii samples were collected in Çaykara, Trabzon province in September 2018.

Place and Duration of Study: Plant samples were stored in Herbarium Material Warehouse at Afyon Kocatepe University. The plant leaves and grated bulbs were dried in an incubator at 60°C. The bulb and leaf samples were then pulverized to 80 mesh particle size for analysis.

Methodology: Total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically with Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Total flavonoid content was determined with aluminum chloride colorimetric method and calculated as catechin equivalent (CAE). Antioxidant activities were determined with TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) and DPPH (diphenyl-p-picrylhydrazyl radical) methods. The phenolic acid and galantamine content were determined by reversed phase HPLC.

Results: The highest total flovanoid content was determined as 33 mg CAE/g DW in Galanthus woronowii leaves and as 27 mg CAE / g DW in bulbs. DPPH removal activity was 77% in 500 μg/mL Galanthus woronowii leaf extract concentration and 93% in the ascorbic acid control group. The highest antioxidant content was observed in the leaves of Galanthus woronowii as 23 µmol Trolox/100 g DW and as 21 µmolTrolox/100 g DW in the bulbs. Higher galantamine content was determined in aerial parts (leaves) when compared to the underground parts (bulbs). The galantamine content in the leaves of all three Galanthus species was about 0.082%. The galantamine content in the bulbs of all three species was about 0.045%. Gallic, protocatechic, vanilic, caffeic, syringic, rosmarinic acid and catechin were identified in the leaves and bulbs of the three species with HPLC phenolic acid analysisIt was determined that the major phenolic acid was gallic acid.

Conclusion: The present study findings demonstrated that Galantthus species has antioxidant capacity. Galanthus spp. leaves had higher antioxidant activity when compared to the bulbs. Galanthus woronowii exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the scrutinized species.