Open Access Original Research Article

Ginkgo biloba Mitigates Aluminum Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

Sahar H. Orabi, Sherif M. Shawky, Gemechu Wirtu, Doaa A. Mansour, Samy A. Abdelaziz, Hesham S. Elsabbagh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45780

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Ginkgo is a large tree with fan-shaped leaves. The leaves are often orally taken by individuals with memory deficits such as Alzheimer's disease and to improve blood flow to the brain in older people.

Aim of the Study: We evaluated the protective effects of Ginkgo biloba against aluminum chloride (AlCl3)-induced neurotoxicity

Study Design: Eighty male albino rats were divided into four main groups (n = 20 per group) and provided with varying doses and combinations of AlCl3 and/or Ginkgo biloba (GB) in drinking water, DW. The treatments were administrated daily for 12 weeks.

Results: Ginkgo biloba extract caused a significant increase in brain neurotransmitters contents [Norepinephrine (NE), Serotonin (5-HT) and Dopamine (DA)] of intoxicated adult male albino rats. The plant extract also improved aluminum induced disruption of tissue architecture and significantly reduced DNA damage as indicated by reduction in different comet assay parameters in the brain of intoxicated rats during the entire experimental period.

Conclusions: Gingko biloba has protective effects against aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. Its mechanisms of action appears to be mediated by increasing monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis, and improving the integrity of DNA and tissue architecture in the brain.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antimicrobial and Antihelmintic Effect of Wonderful Kola (Buchholzia coriacea)

C. C. Nwankwo, B. J. Friday, C. D. Onwukwe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45656

In the present study, the antimicrobial and antihelminthic effect of wonderful kola (Buchholzia coriacea) was examined. The kola nut was diced and dried in an air-draught oven. It was then pulverized using hammer mill. The resulting powder was soaked in ethanol and aqueous solutions to obtain the extracts. Wonderful kola was screened for phytochemical properties. Disc diffusion assay method was used to screen for antimicrobial activities of B. coriacea. The test organisms used were obtained from the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospitals, Nigeria. It was observed that saponin, flavonoid, carbohydrate, alkaloid were present in wonderful kola examined while other phytochemicals (Oxalate, Diterpenes, Terpenoid, Tanins, Protein, Steroids, Phenols, phlobatannins, Glycoside, Anthraquinones) tested for were absent. Wonderful kola exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities on the tested microorganisms. The antihelminthic effect of wonderful kola was also pronounced on the eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides. B. coriacea was found to be more active on the test pathogens than the ethanol and aqueous extracts. It was concluded that over exposure to air, sunlight, too much artificial heat and rapid drying causes a loss of essential oils and B. coriacea possesses an invaluable but yet to be tapped potentials which therefore justifies the traditional usefulness and clinical potentials of Buchholzia coriacea, a medicinal plant commonly used in different parts of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Donated Blood at Regional Blood Transfusion Centre, Eldoret, Kenya

P. Chemutai, F. Ramesh, Frank K. Onyango

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45253

Aim: To detect Chlamydia trachomatis in donated blood at Regional Blood Transfusion center, Eldoret.

Methodology: A random selection blood sample was done for this study for a period of one month from July 24th 2017 to August 24th 2017. Blood bags were numbered 1-87 and picked amongst unnumbered blood bags by each donor in order of donation. The samples obtained were subjected to centrifugation and serum used in the immunoassay test by using the Chlamydia trachomatis IgG/IgM Elisa test kit.

Results: This study showed that C. trachomatis was present in 8% (7 samples) of the blood samples analyzed and 92% were found to be negative.

Conclusion: With 8% of the samples testing positive for Chlamydia trachomatis this indicated that some of the blood donated to the Regional Transfusion Center is contaminated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minerals, Vitamins and Amino Acids Compositions of Melanthera biflora

E. C. Kalu, O. C. Ikewuchi, C. J. Ayalogu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2018/v24i430062

The minerals, vitamins and Amino acids composition of Melanthera biflora leaves were investigated using standard methods. The result shows that out of the eleven vitamins detected; only vitamin C was found in moderately high amount (99.37 mg/100 g), while the rest were in insignificant amount. Ten minerals element were detected, including iron (14.63) copper (2.32). Cobalt (0.04) manganese (5.13), calcium (93.52) magnesium (126.17), potassium (71.39) sodium (32.37), phosphorus 36.50, selenium (0.006) all in mg/100 g. The leaves have essentials and non-essential amino acid of 47.5% and 45.94% respectively. It has all the essential amino acids except tryptophan. This result shows that the leaves contain an appreciable amount of amino acids, vitamins and minerals that could be included in diets to supplement our daily dietary allowance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Age-associated Decline in Phosphorylated Connexin 43 Protein Expression in the Left Ventricular Tissue of Wister Rats

Donatus Onukwufor Onwuli, Sandra A. Jones

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ijbcrr/2018/v24i430063

Cardiac arrhythmia affects ~ 6% in those over 65 years of age (old), but with 0.2% occurrence in those of 45 years and below (young). Arrhythmia can result from dysregulation of the cardiac impulse generation and its conduction. Connexin proteins are responsible for cardiac impulse conduction, and phosphorylation of connexin 43 determines its functional ability. In this study, Phosphorylated connexin 43, density and expression were assessed in ventricular tissues from young (6 months old) and old (24 months old) Wister rats, using the techniques of western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results show that phosphorylated Cx43 in the left ventricle of 24 months old rats significantly declined (P=0.04 & 0.01) by method of western blot and immunohistochemistry respectively, but did not differ in the right ventricle. The left ventricle is known to be responsible for cardiac output. This data suggest an age-associated decline in the expression of phosphorylated connexin 43 in the left ventricle, which may play a significant role in the development of cardiac arrhythmia in the elderly.