Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Anti-diarrheal Activity of the Pulp and Seed Extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana in Rats

Martha Asugu Mbahi, Mary Asugu Mbahi, Pigweh Isa Amos

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45674

In the present study, attempt was made to evaluate the phytochemical composition and anti-diarrheal activity of the seed and pulp extract of Ziziphus mauritania. The anti-diarrheal activity of the crude seed and pulp were evaluated using castor oil induced diarrheal model, charcoal meal test and anti-fluid accumulation test in rats. The result of phytochemical test indicated that tannins, flavonoids, saponin, cyanogenic glycosides, and terpenoids were present in both seed and pulp. In the castor oil induced model both the seed and pulp extract significantly prolonged diarrheal onset was observed in treated rats compared to the negative control. Similarly, in the fluid accumulation test, the extract of the seed and pulp produced a significant decline in volume of intestinal contents. Results from the charcoal meal test revealed that all the extract produced a significant anti-motility effect. Based on the findings of this work, the pulp extract of this plant possess anti-diarrheal properties and validates its use in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Antioxidant, Sex Hormones and Histopathological Examination of the Ovarian Tissues of Diabetic Rats Treated with Polyherbal Therapy

Esienanwan Esien Efiong, Edisua Hogan Itam, Patrick Ekong Ebong

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45948

Aim: To access the impact of single and polyherbal therapy of Vernonia amygdalina, Moringa oleifera, Ocimum gratissimum and Gongronema latifolium on oxidative stress indices and ovary of diabetic rats.

Study Design: An experimental diabetes mellitus model was created in 78 rats.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar and Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, 2013-2014.

Methodology: Thirteen groups of 6 rats each were used. Groups 1 and 2 Normal and Diabetic Control received 0.5 ml Dimethylsulphoxide; 3 and 4 received 5 UI/Kg b.w insulin and 5 mg/Kg b.w glibenclamide; 5, 6, 7 and 8 received 500 mg/Kg b.w of Vernonia amygdalina, Moringa oleifera, Gongronema latifolium and Ocimum gratissimum extracts respectively; 9, 10 and 11 received 250 mg/ Kg b.w of M. oleifera/V. amygdalina, M. oleifera/ G. latifolium and M. oleifera/O. gratissimum respectively; 12 received 166.66 mg/kg b.w of V. amygdalina/ G. latifolium/ O. gratissimum while 13 received 125 mg/kg b.w of all extracts.

Results: After 28 days of treatment, the animals were anaesthetized and sacrificed to obtain blood by cardiac puncture. Serum was collected and assayed for malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase and sex hormones while the ovaries were collected for histopathological examination. Malondialdehyde and Gluthathione peroxidase increased and reduced respectively in the diabetic control group and reduced and increased respectively in the treated groups except group 8. Combination of O. gratissimum with M. oleifera ameliorated the effect observed in group 8. Sex hormone reduced for diabetic control but increased in the treated groups. Group 5 and 12 showed better results than others. Synergy was observed more in group 12 than in others. Histological observation confirmed this.

Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that groups 5, 11 and 12 were more potent at removing oxidative radical produced in diabetes as well as correct the injury to the ovary.

Open Access Original Research Article

Caralluma dalzielii Ethanolic Extract Prevents High-fat-diet-induced Obesity in Mice

Dramane Pare, Adama Hilou, Jotham Yhi-pênê N’DO, Nogma Ernest Sombie, Samson Guenne, Noufou Ouedraogo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44490

Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of C. dalzielii extract on weight, biochemical parameter and antioxidant enzymes of obese Mice induced.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry (LABIOCA), Research Institute for Health Sciences (IRSS).

Background: Obesity is a pathology that occurs as a result of energy imbalance and this metabolic pathology is dramatically increasing in developing countries and it is the cause of many morbidities. Caralluma dalzielii is a medicinal plant traditionally used in northern Burkina Faso for weight management. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-obesity potential of the ethanolic extract of C. dalzielii.

Methods: The ethanol extract obtained by maceration was administered by gavage to NMRI mice for the determination of toxicity, the effect of the extract on weight gain, food intake and a biochemical parameter of serum. The antioxidant and inhibitory activity of digestive enzymes (pancreatic lipase and trypsin), inflammatory enzymes (lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase) were also determined.

Results: Caralluma dalzielii ethanolic extract has exhibited no toxicity (with an LD50 greater than 3000 mg / kg body weight). It caused a reduction of 7.1% on body weight of the animals treated at 400 mg/kg against an increase of 38.16% in the positive control. Animals in the control group showed a higher concentration of triglyceride and LDL-Cholesterol in serum than those that received the extract. Caralluma dalzielii extract has inhibited lipoxygenase at 65.75 ± 0.05% (at 1 mg/ml) greater than that of gallic acid used as a reference (54.87 ± 0.04%). It has also shown good inhibition potential on pancreatic lipase, trypsin and DPPH radical. 

Conclusion: These results suggest that Caralluma dalzielii extract may be a good candidate for the establishment of a phytomedicine in the management of obesity and its complications

Open Access Original Research Article

Association of Cord Blood Telomere Biology with Mother’s Education

Sadia Farrukh, Saeeda Baig, Rubina Hussain, Mohammad Haris Lucky

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/46192

Background: Telomere, the biological chronometer, has been found to be influenced by different parameters which are reprogrammed during fetal life. This study was designed to find out influence of education on relative telomere length (RTL) of the maternal and new born and to detect improvement in the genetic remodeling during the fetal life between low and high educational levels of mother.

Methods: Pregnant females (18-37 years) and their newborns (n=250) were recruited from Karachi hospitals. In this cross-sectional study RTL (maternal and cord) was calculated by Quantitative real-time PCR. Statistical analysis used were chi square tests and Mann Whitney U test for variables with two categories and then Kruskal Wallis for variables with more than two categories to examine mean difference between relative telomere length(RTL) and maternal education. The relationship between predictor variable (education) and RTL was done by linear regression.

Results: A significant association of education and RTL revealed shorter mean maternal RTL (base pair(bp)) 6380±1128 among females with low education and longer 6553±945 in high education females respectively (p=0.071) (B= 0.009 p = >0.05). Similarly, cord RTL were shorter 6600±1218 in low and longer 7154±1585 in high education group (p=0.007) (B= 0.184 p = <0.05) at 95% confidence level. It was also found that newborn among high education with upper middle Socioeconomic status (SES) have significantly longest RTL 7262±1804 (p =<0.05).

Conclusion: Overall longer newborn RTL than mothers were observed among different levels of education in targeted population of Karachi where higher education have a shielding effect on telomere remodeling during the fetal development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Antinutrients, Nutrients, Phytochemicals and Metals Content of Five Leafy Vegetables in Dengi Metropolis

Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Humtap O. Timothy

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44652

Aim: To quantify the levels of amino acids, some metals, and phytochemicals/antinutritional factors in leafy vegetables: Cucurbita pepo, Vitex doniana, Hibiscus cannabinus, Leptadenia hastata, Balanites aegyptiaca.

Study Design: The research work is descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos between March 2016 and September 2016.

Methodology: Five samples each of the vegetables were collected at random from different locations in the area of study. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was applied to analyse for metals. Levels of amino acids in samples were determined using the PTH amino acids analyser. Antinutrients were quantified using standard methods. One way ANOVA was used to analyse the data obtained at 95% level of significance.

Results: Mean levels of Pb and Cd were 0.030 ±0.01 ppm and 0.004 ± 0.001 ppm respectively (P>0.05) relative permissible limits. Mean Mg, Mn and Fe content were 1.084 ± 0.02 ppm, 0.069 ± 0.01 ppm and 1.534±0.10 ppm respectively (P=.05). Amino acids profile indicated mean values (g/100 g proteins) of Glutamate 8.34, Aspartate 8.14, Leucine 8.34, Lysine 4.03, Isoleucine 3.30, Phenylalanine 4.17, Tryptophan 2.25, Valine 4.6, Methionine 1.12, Proline 2.84, Arginine 4.99, Tyrosine 2.75, Histidine 2.23, Cysteine 1.09, Alanine 3.71, Glycine 4.08, Threonine 2.88, Serine 2.99. Mean range of antinutrients were: tannins (g/100 g), 0.51±0.13 to 0.60±0.12, oxalates (mg/100 g), 0.14±0.14 to 0.60±0.20, phytates (mg/100 g), 1.70±0.01 to 4.10±0.01, saponins (g/100 g), 11.85±1.85 to 15.13±1.50, cyanogenic glycosides (mg/100 g), 4.82±1.30 to 7.59±1.20, total alkaloids and total flavonoids (g/100 g) were 16.22±1.61 to 19.37±1.23 and 9.87±1.32 to 14.71±2.30 respectively.

Conclusion: Although samples analysed contained significant amounts of antinutrients, they are very good sources of amino acids; especially Lysine, Methionine, Leucine, tryptophan which are essential; and mineral elements. Levels of lead and cadmium in the samples were lower than safe limits. These vegetables are good sources of nutrients. Their consumption will replenish nutrients to the cell thereby improving the well being of consumers.