Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Cytotoxicity and Antiplasmodial Activity of Fractions from Anthocleista djalonensis A. Chev. Acetone Root Extract

Ijeoma Solomon Okoro, Terrumun Amom Tor-Anyiin, John Ogbaji Igoli, Muluh Emmanuel Khan, Mbeh Ubanga Eteng

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/36635

Aim: Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is one of the killer diseases in Africa today and the uncontrollable spread of drug resistance and limited drugs with therapeutic efficacy makes it necessary to discover agents against this deadly parasite. Traditionally Anthocleista djalonensis root extract is used in the treatment of Malaria in many parts of Africa and has demonstrated to be a source of antiplasmodial agents. This study aims at identifying possible antiplasmodial agents from chromatographic root fractions of Anthocleista djalonensis of the Genatianceae family as well as to evaluate their cytotoxicity against HeLa cells.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was undertaken in the Department of Organic Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa. The duration period was between March and July 2016.

Methodology: The Anthocleista djalonensis roots were collected from Arochukwu, Abia State, Nigeria. The acetone extract was obtained from successive maceration of the methanol crude extract with hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone. The concentration (1-1000 µg/mL range) of the chromatographic fractions from acetone root extract of Anthocleista djalonensis were tested for anti-malarial activity against Plasmodium falciparium (P. falciparum). Cytotoxicity against HeLa cells was also evaluated using Resazurin based assay.

Results: The Five fractions obtained from the chromatographic fractionation of acetone extract labeled A1, A2, A3, A4, and A5 with percentage yield (13.02, 26.66, 24.70, 0.05 and 26.66% respectively) showed excellent anti-plasmodial activity. The anti-malarial bioassay test showed fractions A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 with IC50 value of 0.0360 ± 0.0100, 8.1299 ± 2.0358, 46.2482 ± 1.2720, 0.0151 ± 0.0010, and 9.8013 ± 0.8171 μg/mL respectively. CC50 values of 44.2010 ± 8.6790, 50.0000 ± 5.6412, 71.6221 ± 2.9600, 36.7212 ± 5.8900 and 0.5132 ± 3.770 μg mL–1 were recorded for fractions A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 respectively. Fractions were classified as marginally active (A3) showing SI of 1.540 ± 0.0091, partially active (A2 and A5) with SI 6.150 ± 0.0200 and 4.133 ± 0.015 and as active (A1, A4,) exhibiting SI of 1227.805 ± 8.210 and 2431.867 ± 1.589 respectively. A1 and A4 showed SI > 10 and IC50 < 10 ug/mL. Chloroquine, used as a reference anti-malarial drug, tested in parallel had an IC50 of 0.0125 ± 0.0001 µM and was comparable with A1 and A4.

Conclusion: The chromatographic fractions from acetone root extract of Anthocleista djalonensis are potential sources for anti-malarial agents of lead compounds for the development of anti-plasmodial drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Association between Micronutrients Levels and Gestational Diabetes: A Cross Sectional Study in Ashanti Region

Daniel Abera Ataanya, Christopher Larbie

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45107

Aims: Micronutrients such as chromium, iron, magnesium and zinc can serve as good therapeutic and preventive agents for several diabetes complications including Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). The aim of this study was to compare the serum levels of chromium, iron, zinc and magnesium in pregnant women with and without GDM and to assess the association between the levels of these minerals and GDM.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Antenatal clinics in five selected hospitals in Ashanti region of Ghana between August 2016 to August 2017.

Methodology: A total of 50 pregnant women with GDM and 50 controls of the same gestational age participated in the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic and clinical characteristics. Standard oral glucose tolerance test was used to measure glucose profile. Serum levels of chromium, iron, zinc and magnesium were measured using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS).

Results: The results indicated that 14% of the respondents with GDM had a previous history of gestational diabetes. However, there was no previous history among the control group. Serum zinc was not significantly different in the two groups (0.052 ± 0.01 mg/dl; 0.093 ± 0.03 mg/dl, p=0.276). Iron levels in the GDM group were high (0.956 ± 0.35 mg/dl) compared with the control group (0.635± 0.41 mg/dl). There was no significant difference of the serum magnesium level in the two groups (p=0.967). Chromium was higher in the GDM group (0.051±0.05) than the control group (0.012±0.06). There was a significant positive correlation between iron (r = 0.303, p = 0.000) and chromium (r = 0.302, p= 0.002) with the markers of GDM.

Conclusion: The study showed that high serum concentration of iron is associated with hyperglycemia. Serum magnesium and zinc levels did not exhibit any significant differences between GDM women and nondiabetic women. It is recommended that micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy needs to be carefully examined and commence only when significant deficiencies are observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Inactivation of Crude Polyphenol Oxidases and Peroxidase from Three Tissues of Yellow-fleshed Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Root cv. Bocou 2

Yves Djina, Jean Tia Gonnety, Siaka Binate, Georges Amani, Patrice Lucien Kouame

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43643

Aims: The objective of this work was to study the thermal inactivation of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root cv. Bocou 2 in order to prevent enzymatic browning.

Study Design: Crude PPO and POD from yellow-fleshed cassava root were subjected to heat treatment and their thermal inactivation characteristics were examined.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was conducted at Biocatalysis and Bioprocesses Laboratory, Food Science and Technology Unit, Nangui Abrogoua University Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, between January and December 2015.

Methodology: The crude PPO and POD were extracted from three tissues (cortex, cambium and central pith) of yellow-fleshed cassava root cv. Bocou 2. The thermal inactivation of these enzymatic activities was evaluated between 50 and 70 °C. The kinetic data of thermal inactivation and thermodynamics were analysed.

Results: The t1/2- and D-values decreased with increasing temperature, indicating a faster inactivation of PPO and POD at higher temperatures. Z-values ranged from 16.10 to 27.70 °C and activation energy (Ea) from 73.37 to 129.66 kJ mol-1. Thermodynamic investigations indicated that the oxidation reactions involving these enzyme activities were: not spontaneous (ΔG > 0), slightly endothermic (ΔH > 0) and reversible (ΔS < 0).

Conclusion: The PPO and POD activities from yellow-fleshed cassava root decreased due to heat denaturation with increasing temperature from 60 to 70 °C. These kinetic data can be used to prevent enzymatic browning in cassava roots.

Open Access Original Research Article

Immune Modulatory Properties of Powdered Telfairia occidentalis Supplemented Vital Feed Diet on Male Wistar Rats

Kunle Ogungbemi, C. A. Moses, D. T. Ishola, T. A. Odeniyi, A. O. Oyeniran, A. O. Alejo, O. T. Ishola, S. I. Ayanda, A. A. Afolabi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43088

This study was carried out to investigate the immune modulatory properties of different graded stored powdered of Telfairia occidentalis supplemented diet on male wistar rats. Twelve male wistar rats weighing 120g±20g were purchased, acclimatised and randomly allotted into four (T1, T2, T3, T4) Telfairia occidentalis supplemented groups (0% 5%, 10% and 15%). The rate of their feeding was monitored for three weeks after which the animals were decapitated and the blood and organs were removed for haematological and endogenous antioxidant analysis. The result showed that the highest feed intake was observed in animal fed with the highest level of Telfairia occidentalis supplementation. Also from the haematological analysis, the white blood cell of the highest supplementation was boosted when compared to other graded level likewise the endogenous Antioxidant level was enhanced when compared with the control group.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial and Antiplasmodial Activities of Tannins Extracted from Zizyphus mauritiana in Mali

Singou Keita, Mamadou Wélé, Cheickna Cisse, Nouhoum Diarra, Laura Kirkman, Lamine Baba-Moussa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45335

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate tannins extracted from Ziziphus mauritiana as source of potential antimalarial and antimicrobial agents in Mali.

Place and Duration of Study: Collection of plant materials, tannins extraction, antibacterial activity evaluation were done at University od Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Mali and antiplasmodial activity assessment at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States of America between September 2013 and February 2014.

Methods: We extracted tannins from leaves of Z. mauritiana collected around Bamako, Mali. Antiplasmodial activity was evaluated against 3D7 (chloroquine-sensitive) and Dd2 (chloroquine-resistant) strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the fluorescence based SYBR® green I method. Antibacterial activity of tannins was evaluated by disc diffusion method against strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus donated by the National Research Institute in Public Health in Mali and collected from infected patients suffering from different diseases.

Results: Tannins extracts from leaves of Z. mauritiana showed moderate antiplasmodial activity against 3D7 P. falciparum (46.9±1.12 μg/mL) and against Dd2 P. falciparum strains (67.8±2.39 μg/mL). They showed also an antibacterial activity on different bacterial strains showing important inhibition zones.

Conclusion: Tannins extracted from Z. mauritiana demonstrated good antiplasmodial and antibacterial activities. These data confirm the potential use of tannins as a key element in antimalarial and antibacterial drug development.