Open Access Original Research Article

Retrospective Analysis of Vitamin D Levels with Respect to Age and Gender: Hopa State Hospital Example

Eda Dokumacioglu, Ali Dokummacioglu, Hatice Iskender

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44494

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the status of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in adults, which is very common today.

Material and Methods: The patient data was retrospectively reviewed through the hospital information system for those patients who applied to Hopa State Hospital (Artvin, Turkey) from January to December 2014 having vitamin D test results in their files. Our study groups by age were specified as 18-29 years, 30-44 years, 45-59 years and ≥60 years. Serum D vitamine levels were measured using immunoassay method on the autoanalyzer.

Results: As for the gender, 1871 (78,68%) of the patients were women and 507 (21,32%) were men. When grouped with respect to gender, vitamin D values of women were determined as <20 ng/ml (deficiency) in 79.4%, as 20-30 ng/ml (insufficiency) in 12.8% and >30 ng/ml (sufficiency) in 7.8% while men displayed <20 ng/ml (deficiency) in 70.4%, 20-30 ng/ml (insufficiency) in 7.8%  and > 30 ng/ml (sufficiency) in 7.5%.

Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency prevails in our city. As a result; we determined a vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency at a high rate in our study group. We think that nutritives enriched with vitamin D or vitamin D supplements would be appropriate particularly in the places like our city, where people cannot benefit from sunlight adequately.

Open Access Original Research Article

Subchronic Toxicity Study of the Extract of Sacoglottis gabonensis (Baille) Urban (Humiriaceae) in Wistar Rats

Tra Bi Irié Otis, Kouassi Kousso Brigitte, Gnangoran Boua Narcisse, Kone Mama, Yapo Angoué Paul

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44353

Introduction: Sacoglottis gabonensis (Baille) Urban (Humiriaceae) is a medicinal plant used in the treatment of Buruli ulcer in Ivory Coast. To ensure its effect over a long period of use, the subchronic toxicity of the total aqueous extract of S. gabonensis stem bark (ETASg) in rats was evaluated.

Methods: 80 rats were homogeneously distributed in 4 lots of 20 rats each, including 10 males and 10 females. ETASg was administered daily orally for 90 days for 2 mL/100 g body weight (b.w.) rats at doses of 3.5; 35 and 350 mg/kg b.w. The control group received distilled water. A venous blood sample is taken every 30 days for 90 days to determine serum biochemical parameters.

Results: The study showed that ETASg did not influence serum biochemical markers at the therapeutic dose of 3.5 mg/kg b. w. significant increases in ASAT serum activity, ALT, PAL, and LDH in rats tested at 35 and 350 mg/kg b. w. was found on the 60th and 90th days. Administration of ETASg did not affect most of the metabolites and electrolytes studied at doses of 3.5; 35 and 350 mg/kg b. w. After 30 days of discontinuing oral administration of ETASg, the increase observed at the 350 mg/kg b. w. is moderate and reversible.

Conclusion: This study revealed that ETASg is nontoxic for biochemical parameters, at doses of 3.5; 35 and 350 mg/kg b. w. during 90 days of administration in rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterisation and Antimicrobial Activity of Chemical Constituents from the Root of Mezoneuron angolense (Caesalpiniaceae)

Chardin Seri Seri, Timothée Aboua Okpekon, Touré Daouda, Faustin Aka Kabran, Harisolo Ramiarantsoa, Amadou Dicko, Léon Atoutou Djakoure, Jean-Marie Coustard

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44161

Aims: In Ivory Coast, Mezoneuron angolense roots are well-known in traditional medicine for their efficiency in the treatment of diarrhoea. The goal of this study was to determine the antibacterial constituents of these roots.

Methodology: The chemical investigations of the roots of the plant have been undertaken and the structure of isolated compounds was elucidated through spectral studies including IR, UV, MS, 1D-NMR (1H and 13C NMR) and 2D-NMR experiments (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY). The isolated compounds were screened against three enteropathogenic bacteria, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi and Shiguella fleneii, using microbroth dilution method.

Results: These investigations conducted to the isolation of two sterols, two stilbenes, one phthalate, and one carbohydrate. All tested compounds except Bis (2-methylheptyl) phtalate (2) were active against all pathogens with MICs and MBCs ranging from 312.50 to 625 mg/ml. Piceatannol (5) and Trans-resveratrol (3) were the most active compounds.

Conclusion: The results from the current study confirm and justify the popular use of the roots of this plant in the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. All obtained compounds were isolated from this species for the first time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Hypertension and Prognosis of Associated Dysfunction on Specific Organ Function among Ghanaian Adolescent Students

Abena Sekyere, Christopher Larbie, Cynthia Pomaa Asante, Odeafo Asamoah-Boakye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/45034

Aims: To determine prevalence of hypertension among adolescent students and prognosis of associated dysfunction on specific organ function among adolescent students.

Study Design: A cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Three senior high schools (SHS) in Ashanti region of Ghana, namely Anglican SHS, Konongo Odumase SHS and Bonwire SHS, between October 2016 and March 2017.

Methodology: A multi-stage sampling method was used to select 909 adolescents from the three SHS. Participants were screened for elevated blood pressure. A total of 142 participants had high blood pressure and were used for this study. Anthropometries; body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), visceral fat (VF), waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure levels were measured with recommended instruments and biochemical and haematological parameters were assessed. Sociodemographic data were taken with questionnaire.

Results: Out of 909 adolescent students, the prevalence of high blood pressure from first screening was 9.1%. However, upon second screening from those with high blood pressure from the first screening, prevalent rate for high blood pressure had declined to 1.21%. Hypertension was higher in males (10.7%), compared to females (4.5%, P= 0.658). There were no significant differences between BMI (P= 0.847), %BF (P= 0.501), VF (P= 0.195), WC (P= 0.450) among hypertensive, pre-hypertensive and normotensive participants. There was no significant mean difference between urea (P= 0.236), creatinine (P= 0.995), serum sodium (P= 0.126), serum chloride (P= 0.516), serum potassium (P= 0.878) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels (P= 0.397) and blood pressure status. Total cholesterol (P= 0.765), triglycerides (P= 0.381), HDL (P= 0.777) and LDL (P= 0.768) was not significantly associated with blood pressure status.

Conclusions: Participants had high blood pressure level. Despite the prevalence of high blood pressure among adolescent population, it had no impact to cause any dysfunction in kidney, cardiovascular and liver. Hence, appropriate diet and lifestyle management are needed to prevent early and/or future complication of hypertension among adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens Seed Oils

M. Aliyu, M. K. Atiku, N. Abdullahi, A. A. Imam, Idris A. Kankara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/40107

Aim: The study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant potentials of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens seed oils.

Study Design: It was designed to extract oil from the seeds and investigate their antioxidant properties to indicate their capabilities to improve oxidative stability.

Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted between August 2016 and January 2017 at Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano State-Nigeria.

Methodology: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing power assays were used to determine free radical scavenging activities and reducing power potential of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens seed oils.

Results: From the DPPH radical scavenging assay, It shows that the IC50 value of the ascorbic acid (reference standard) was found to be higher (13.23± 0.16 μg/ml) compared to Nymphaea lotus seed oil (8.82 ± 0.82 μg/ml). The IC50 value of Nymphaea pubescens seed oil was also compared with the standard and was found to be (41.76 ± 0.98 μg/ml) higher than ascorbic acid (13.23± 0.16 μg/ml). The lower the IC50 value the higher the antioxidant activity of the oil. The order of the effectiveness of reducing capabilities of the oils was found to be N. lotus seed oil > ascorbic acid> N. pubescens seed oil. Gas chromatographic coupled mass spectroscopy analysis of the N. lotus seed oil showed that Dihydrocarveol (0.87%), Eicosane (1.10%), Lupeol (14.75%), Tetracosane (2.14%) and Viridiflorol (13.72%) were the major antioxidants compounds identified whereas Palmitic acid (23.57), Eicosane (7.65%), Oleic acid (37.85%), Tetracosane (3.10%) and Squalene (1.58%) were the major antioxidants detected in N. pubescens seed oil. Compared with standard (ascorbic acid), the results show that N. lotus seed oil possessed highest antioxidant potential. The higher antioxidant potential displayed by Nymphaea lotus seed oil could be attributed to the presence of these compounds that could act synergistically.

Conclusion: Therefore, Nymphaea lotus seed oil and Nymphaea pubescens seed oil contains natural antioxidants that can improve oxidative stability.