Open Access Original Research Article

Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Polluted Agricultural Soil Using Schwenkia americana L. and Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. f.

Chukwuemeka C. Chukwuma, Jude C. Ikewuchi, Chimezie Ekeke, Micheal O. Monanu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44205

Aims: To remove hydrocarbons from crude oil polluted agricultural soil using two selected plant species.

Study Design:  Mature seeds of Schwenkia americana L. and Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. f. were propagated onto a sterile unpolluted agricultural soil. Seedlings were transplanted into an 8 kg potted homogenised polluted soil for remediation.

Place and Duration of Study: Polluted agricultural soil collected from Ogoniland, Rivers State, Nigeria, Ecological Centre of the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria, between May 2017 and February 2018.

Methodology: Standard methods were employed for laboratory analyses. Reagents used were of analytical grades with high purity.

Results: Twelves weeks after planting (WAP), total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) decreased from 17962.11±1000.00 mg/kg to 117.64±30.27 and 117.45±14.76 mg/kg in S. americana and for S. ocymoides remediated groups respectively, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) decreased from 440.97±1.00 mg/kg to 120.99±50.05, and 181.97±158.69 mg/kg for S. americana and for S. ocymoides remediated groups respectively. While oil content decreased to 1.02±0.09 and 1.15±0.21 ppm for S. americana and S. ocymoides remediated groups respectively from an initial 3.19±0.10 ppm recorded at the onset of remediation, organic carbon decreased from 2.78±0.01% to 2.16±0.06 and 2.07±0.18% for S. americana and S. ocymoides remediated groups respectively. With regards to TPH, the percentage recovery moved towards normal values (510.27 and 509.02%), however, with regards PAH, the values nosedived indicating a failure in restoration. By 4, 8 and 12 WAP, the treatment restored the values towards normal values (1.08, 7.30, 10.58, 10.81 and 14.05%), however, the treatment using S. ocymoides, by 12 WAP, plunged, indicating failure to restore the polluted soil, especially with regards to the oil content, while by 8 and 12 WAP, the treatments restored the polluted soil towards normal values (3.33, 11.11 and 13.33), with regards to the organic carbon.

Conclusion: The quality of the crude oil polluted agricultural soil was enhanced through phytoremediation with these plant species. This contention is supported by the diminution of hydrocarbons, organic carbon and the oil content of the remediated groups after the 12 weeks remediation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Two Traditional African Vegetables (Corchorus olitorus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) Commonly Consumed in Côte d’Ivoire

Dogni Kouassi Dappah, Denis Yao N’Dri, Nestor Kouakou Kouassi, Georges N’Guessan Amani

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43796

Aims: Leafy vegetables play an important role as essential components of diet for rural populations in tropical Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value of two leafy         vegetable species (Corchorus olitorus and Hibiscus sabdariffa) consumed widely as sauces in Côte d’Ivoire.

Methodology: The proximate composition, minerals, nutritive and anti-nutritional components of fresh leafy vegetables were determined according to standard methods for nutritional guidelines.

Results: The results obtained were as follows: moisture (85.75 - 86.29% Fresh basis), proteins (13.13 - 21.00% Dry basis), ash (7.00 - 9.14% Dry basis), carbohydrates (26.03 - 42.97% Dry basis) and lipids (4.35 - 4.74% Dry basis). The mineral contents were Phosphorus (0.44 – 0.62 g/100 g), Calcium (0.71 – 1.41g/100 g), Magnesium (1.31 – 2.00 g/100 g), and high amount of Iron (4.96 – 5.41 g/100 g). The result of computed antinutrient to mineral molar ratios suggest that Iron and Calcium bioavailability may not be impaired when the two leafy vegetables were consumed. These leafy vegetables were good sources of polyphenols (80.00 - 103.00 mg/100 g).

Conclusion: The leaves of Corchorus olitorus and Hibiscus sabdariffa contain appreciable amount of nutrients and minerals which could participate in the maintenance of a good nutritional status of the people in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Enzymes Assessment in Alloxan Monohydrate Induced Hyperglycaemic Male Wistar Rats Following Oral Administration of Theophylline

D. C. Ejiogu, Y. Tanko, N. S. Emmanuel, E. A. Alex, M. Olubiyi, R. A. Abdulrauf, C. N. Chima, H. D. Muhammad, M. Yahuza, A. E. Ogweje, E. C. Umeh, A. Mohammed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44232

Aim: Lipids are referred to as one of the primary targets of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The main sources of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus comprise various enzymatic pathways, non-enzymatic pathways and mitochondrial pathways. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of theophylline and treatment on lipid peroxidation (serum malondialdehyde concentration) and some antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and Catalase) in alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic male Wistar rats.

Study Design: Thirty apparently healthy male wistar rats weighing between 160-180 g were grouped into five of six animals each (n=6) and treated for a period of fourteen days (14) after induction of hyperglycaemia using alloxan monohydrate.

Methodology: Group 1: (Normoglycaemic) Group 2: Diabetic control (DC), Group 3: Glibenclamide, 5mg/kg, Groups 4 and 5; theophylline 5 mg/kg and 10mg/kg respectively. At the end of the fourteen (14) days, rats were anaesthetized using ketamine and diazepam at 75 and 25 (mg/kg). Blood samples were taken from all treated groups for evaluation of serum MDA, SOD, GPx and CAT level.

Results: The result on serum MDA concentration was significantly decreased (P< 0.05) in glibenclamide treated group compared to diabetic control; 1.14±0.03 vs 1.32±0.06. Although a decrease was observed in the theophylline treated groups, the difference was however not statistically significant compared to diabetic control. There was also a significant increase (P< 0.05) in serum SOD and CAT level in the glibenclamide and theophylline treated group (5 mg/kg) compared to DC; 2.02±0.04 and 1.92±0.24 vs 0.92±0.05 respectively for serum SOD and 53.20±0.58 and 52.80±1.07 vs 46.00±0.84 respectively for CAT. However, serum GPx increased significantly (P< 0.05) only in the theophylline treated groups compared to DC.

Conclusion: In conclusion, Theophylline and Glibenclamide decreases lipid peroxidation while increasing serum antioxidant levels in alloxan induced hyperglycaemic male Wistar rats after 14 days oral administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Causes and Concerns of Diabetic Subjects with Lower Limb Amputation(s) in Trinidad

B. Shivananda Nayak, Rondon Ramlal, Amit Ramrattan, Vandana Sookdeo, Nicholas Mohammed, Akash S. Nayak

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44534

Aim: This study seeks to examine the major causative factors for lower extremities amputation (LEA) amongst a Trinidadian diabetic patients as well as to analyse the resulting concerns of said patients.

Study Setting and Design: This study mainly comprised patients who were subject to or will be subject to lower limb amputations of differing degrees and were selected via a random stratified methodology. Questionnaire used was designed as to attain data on patient medical history as well as intrinsic and opinionated results.

Methods: This study comprised 35 patients who were subject to LEAs of differing degrees and these patients were selected via a random stratified methodology. After obtaining informed consent questionnaire were used to attain subjective and objective data as it pertains to the cause and effects of lower limb amputations. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS to test for distribution and correlations.

Results: A number of factors were taken into account and measured as it pertained to the cause of having an amputation. Our study noted that the major factors like diet, alcohol consumption and infection became the reason for amputation.

Conclusions: The data of this study showed that the patients are to ensure better self-care and preventative lifestyle changes are to be implemented as to prevent the need for amputations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Vitamins and Macro-Nutrients Composition of Ethanolic Extract of Tecoma stans and Costus afer Leaves

I. P. Ekpe, E. O. Udosen, Dennis Amaechi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44554

Aim: This study aims to determine the presence of some vitamins and minerals in both T. stans and C. afer leaves.

Materials and Methods: Composition of some vitamins and minerals of ethanolic extract of T. stans and C. afer leaves were evaluated and collected at Malabo Campus, University of Calabar, Calabar and from Eman-Uruan local government area, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria respectively.

The parameters investigated were determined using standard biochemical methods.

Results: The leaves contained a variety of vitamins (A, D, E, B complex and C) with vitamin E- (276.33.±3.28 mg/100 g) for Tecoma stans and (265.67±5.49 mg/100 g)for Costus afer. T. stans recorded higher concentration in mg/100 l for the determined vitamins except for vitamin D, whose concentration for C. afer (0.09±0.01 mg/100 g) was higher than the value (0.07±0.01 mg/100 g) for T. stans though it was significant. T. stans is significantly different [p=0.05] from C. afer for vitamins A and C respectively.

The mineral compositions of T. stans and C. afer leaves contain considerable amount of Potassium (3.27 ± 0.009 mg/l) and (4.63±0.09 mg/l), Magnesium (26.03 ± 0.009 mg/l) and (89.83±0.91̽ mg/l), Sodium (5.27 ± 0.078 mg/l) and (16.23±0.12̽ mg/l), Calcium (25.33 ± 0.88 mg/l) and (82.00±1.53̽ mg/l), Phosphorus (2.27±0.09 mg/l) and (1.63±0.09̽ mg/l), respectively. C. afer contained significant (p < 0.05) higher concentration of Mg, Ca, K and Na compared to T. stans. This indicates the tendency of T. stans and C. afer to be able to control osmotic balance, essential for bone formation, lower blood pressure and also act a source of antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

Conclusion: The presence of these vitamins and minerals in both T. stans and C. afer leaves in this leafy vegetables supports the use of these leaves for food and ethnomedicinal purposes in Nigeria and parts of the world where they are cultivated.