This research was carried out to examine the distribution of enzymatic activities of some tissues (liver, muscles and gills) of selected aquatic organisms (Nile tilapia, Mullet fish and Crab) collected from some crude oil polluted rivers (Abuloma Jetty and Woji Jetty) and Ojimba-ama a non-oil polluted area which served as control. The aquatic organisms were obtained from rivers which are used as jetty for transportation of petroleum products and other industrial activities like welding, dredging, refuse dump, etc. Enzyme activities of fish and crab tissues (liver, muscles and gills) were measured for some biomarker enzymes such as catalase, rhodanase and glutathione S-transferase. Results were shown in means of triplicate values which were subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Enzyme activity in Nile tilapia across the three locations ranged from 44.39±0.01 μ/mgprotein to 171.45±0.01 μ/mgprotein with GST in gills having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Enzyme activity in Mullet across the three locations ranged from 18.58±0.10 μ/mgprotein to 120.37±0.02 μ/mgprotein with catalase in muscles having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Enzyme activity in Crab across the three locations ranged from 40.79±0.03 μ/mgprotein to 130.72±0.01 μ/mgprotein with GST in gills having the lowest value and rhodanase in the liver recording the highest value. Rhodanase showed the highest level of enzyme activity in all the tissues. Liver recorded the highest enzyme activity across all samples from the three locations which may be as a result of the liver being the principal detoxification organ for xenobiotic substances. From this study, there was an increase in the enzyme activities of the biomarkers across all the tissues which indicate a contamination from pollutants capable of causing oxidative stress in the organisms.
Aims: Ageratum conyzoides L. is a small annual herbaceous highly odorous plant use in traditional medicine. The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro antioxidant potential, toxicity and antimicrobial activity of aerial part extracts of A. conyzoides on strains potentially involved in vaginal infections.
Methodology: An ethnobotanical survey has been carried out on A. conyzoides among ethnobotanists and traditional therapists in fifteen markets in the communes of Abomey- Calavi, Cotonou, Zogbodomey, Bohicon and Abomey in Southern Benin. The phytochemical screening was a qualitative analysis based on staining and precipitation reactions. Antimicrobial activity of A. conyzoides aqueous and ethanolic extracts was evaluated on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli using micro dilutions method in wells from. The toxicity of A. conyzoides extracts was determine using Artemia salina larvae, whereas the antiradical activity was evaluated using the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) method.
Results: The survey showed that the population of Southern-Benin uses A. conyzoides according to different modes of preparation. Also, the administration in the treatment of a variety of pathologies affecting the female reproductive system. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, anthocyanins, triterpenes and C- heterosides. The yield of 6.18% for the aqueous extract and 4.32% for the ethanolic extract as recorded. The highest inhibition diameter (24.05 ± 0.5 mm) was obtained using aqueous extract against the clinical S. aureus strain. In contrast, the lowest inhibition diameter (10±0 mm) was obtained against the S. aureus ATCC29213 with the same extract. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration varied from 2.5 to 5 mg/ml. Both extracts show a bactericidal and fungicidal effect on the different strains studied but the sensitivity of the strains to the aqueous extract is better compared to the ethanolic extract. In addition, the aqueous extracts showed higher antioxidant power compared to the ethanolic extract. No toxicity is revealed for both extracts.
Conclusion: The results obtained show that the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial part of A. conyzoides have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties on strains involved in vaginal infections and do not present a toxicity.
Aims: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the in vitro anti-plasmodial and cytotoxic effect of the methanolic extracts from leaves, stem bark and roots of Annickia affinis.
Study Design: This is an experimental study.
Place and Duration of Study: The work was conducted at the Pharmacochemistry and Natural Substances Laboratories of the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Douala for the extraction and at the Biomedical Chemistry Research Center of Rhodes University in South Africa for the antimalarial and cytotoxic essay. All the experiments were carried out from the 15th October 2019 to the 31th July 2020.
Methodology: The anti-plasmodial test was performed on Plasmodium falciparum sensitive strains 3D7 while cytotoxicity was evaluated on the HeLa cell line.
Results: The anti-plasmodial tests revealed that the roots and the stem bark exhibited a moderate anti-plasmodial effect with IC50 of 19.7 ± 0.8 and 12.1 ± 0.8 µg/ml respectively. The anti-plasmodial effects of the leaves were classified as low (33.7 ± 1.9 µg/ml). At up to 50 µg/ml, all the extracts showed a high rate of survival among the HeLa cells. No effect was observed with the leaf extracts (100% of survival).
Conclusion: This is the first report on the cytotoxic study and comparative anti-plasmodial effect of Annikia affinis. It highlights the potential of Annickia affinis as an important source of anti-plasmodial drugs with less cytotoxic in vitro. In agreement with the use in traditional medicine, the stem bark was more active than wood, while leaves showed low activity.
Aims: The toxicological effects of single and repeated doses of aqueous extract (AE) and cow urine extract (CUE) of Nicotiana tabacum leaf on the liver and kidney function indices of male Wistar rats were investigated.
Study Design: Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups (n=5). The control group received 0.5 mL of distilled water, groups A and B received 8 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CUE and AE respectively, once daily; groups C and D received 16 mg/kg BW of CUE and AE respectively, thrice a day (TD); groups E and F received 32 mg/kg BW of CUE and AE respectively, TD.The administration was oral and lasted for 28 days.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at Summit University, Offa, Nigeria between June 2019 and August 2019.
Methodology: Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups (n=5). The control group received 0.5 mL of distilled water, groups A and B received 8 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CUE and AE respectively, once daily; groups C and D received 16 mg/kg BW of CUE and AE respectively, thrice a day (TD); groups E and F received 32 mg/kg BW of CUE and AE respectively, TD.
Results: The result revealed no significant difference in the activities of the ALP, and GGT but a significant increase in the ACP, ALT, and AST activities in both tissues and serum. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in albumin concentration of rats in all the groups except group B when compared with the control rats. Liver and kidney histology revealed minimal lymphocytic infiltration with no sign of medium-term systemic damage.
Conclusion: The study suggests no nephrotoxicity of AE and CUE at all doses administered, but probable hepatotoxicity at higher and repeated doses of both extracts except at the single dose of 8 mg/kg BW of AE.
Inflammation has a major role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease, in fact when it is recurrent, it contributes more to the obstruction of blood vessels through several biochemical mechanisms by provoking vaso-occlusive crises. In order to mitigate these adverse effects in sickle cell patients, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potentials of extracts of a combination of organs of three plants were evaluated in this study. The analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the aqueous (DZHm) and hydroethanolic (EZHm) extracts (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) were evaluated in rats as models of acetic acid-induced torsion and Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema, using Diclofenac and Ibuprofen as reference molecules. Oral administration of ZHm extracts at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg produced anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. These extracts significantly reduced edema and pain. These effects are time and dose dependent. In terms of analgesic effect, the dose of 800 mg/kg bw generated a high inhibition rate of 84.51% and 73.06% for DZHm and EZHm respectively, while the inhibition percentage of Ibuprofen was 78.3 ± 2.09 at the dose of 100 mg/kg bw. The anti-inflammatory effect was 60, 55% for DZHm, 56.08% for EZHm and 62.91% for Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg Pc. Diclofenac and Ibuprofen used for these two tests generated similar activities with ZHm extracts at the dose of 800 mg/kg Pc. The tested extracts (DZHm and EZHm) have analgesic and peripheral anti-inflammatory potentials justifying the use of this recipe in the traditional environment.