Open Access Minireview Article

Prostanoids and Their Mediated Inflammatory Responses in Lung Cancer

Aghogho Ohwofasa, Aliyu Abubakar Aliyu, Sadeeq Muhammad Sheshe

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43911

Prostanoids are biochemically important molecules with significant roles in pain and inflammatory responses. These responses are studied in several processes of cancer development, including lung cancer. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the inflammatory responses in lung cancer mediated by prostanoids. Information regarding different classes of prostanoids, lung cancer and their incidence are discussed. Nonetheless, the review also covers recent information on roles of prostanoids in lung cancer development and its risk factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticidal Efficacy and Chemical Composition of Hexane Oil Extracts from the Leaves of Euphorbia milii and Cassia occidentalis

C. O. Okonkwo, O. C. Ohaeri

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43173

Insecticidal efficacy of oils from the leaves of Cassia occidentalis and Euphorbia milii on selected insect pests was studied. The oils were extracted via Soxhlet apparatus with hexane, and test insects exposed to the oils at 3 dose levels (0.2 mg, 0.4 mg and 0.6 mg) for 24 hours. The results showed contact insecticidal activity of E. milii oil at LD50s and LD90s (mg/kg) as 0.583 and 1.108 for Periplaneta americana, 0.681 and 1.215 for Tettigonia viridissima 0.488 and 0.893 for Anopheles gambaie, C. occidentalis oil gave LD50s and LD90s (mg/kg) of 0.889 and 1.689 for P. americana, 1.013 and 1.973 for T. virdissima, and 0.722 and 1.847 for Anopheles gambaie. The corresponding values for the conventional insecticide; SWAN were 0.417 and 1.017 for P. americana, 0.607 and 1.111 for T. viridissima and 0.40 and 0.743 for A. gambaie, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of plant oils revealed for E.milii, the presence of hexadecanoic acid, 2 hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl) ethyl ester; 6, 9,12, 15-docosatetraenic acid methyl ester. For C. occidentalis, the presence of: phthalic acid isobutyl octyl ester; hexadecanoic acid methyl ester;  9,12-octadecadienoic acid methyl ester ; 9-octadecenoic acid (z)-methyl ester; methyl stearate; phthalic acid,2-ethylhexyl isohexyl ester; decane; oleic acid; 4,7,-methano-1h-indene,3a,4,7,7a-tetrahydro and n-hexadecanoic acid were revealed. Overall, data from this study provides strong evidence that these oils possess bioactive metabolites with commendable degrees of insecticidal efficacy.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Lipid Parameters in Malarial Patients Attending a Tertiary Health Care Centre in Mangaluru

S. Reshma, Suriyan S. Nair, Sushith ., M. B. Prathima, E. V. S. Maben, Janice D’sa, P. K. Kiran Kumar, Madan Gopal Rajan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/44416

Aims: The study aims to estimate the lipid parameters among Plasmodium vivax and mixed malaria (P. falciparum and P. vivax) infected patients.

Study Design: This was a prospective observational and comparative study.

Place and Duration of Study: The present study was undertaken in the Departments of Medicine and Biochemistry at A. J. Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (AJIMS), Mangaluru, Karnataka between Dec 2017 and May 2018.

Methods: It was a prospective observational comparative study. A total of 100 patients (50 P. vivax and 50 mixed malaria cases) were consecutively taken in the study. The lipid profiles of the cases were compared with that of 100 healthy volunteers (control group). Data was collected and analysed.

Results: Serum total cholesterol, High- Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and Low- Density Lipoprotein (LDL) levels were significantly low(p<0.001) in cases and serum Triglycerides (TG) and Very Low- Density Lipoprotein levels (VLDL) were higher in cases (p<0.001) than in control. There were no significant changes in mean serum lipids profiles between P. vivax and Mixed Malaria groups.

Conclusion: The derangement in lipid profiles in falciparum malaria was characteristic and specific for the disease. Characteristic changes were lower HDL, LDL and total cholesterol levels with higher TG and VLDL levels in comparison to control groups. These findings may be of diagnostic and prognostic value.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Serum and Urine Sialic Acid Levels with Lipid Profile and Anthropometric Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Nephropathy

K. Prajna, Srinidhi Rai, Tirthal Rai

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43386

Introduction: Sialic acid is a component of vascular cell membranes; the elevated levels indicate excessive vascular damage leading to diabetic complications. Therefore sialic acid can be considered to be newly established potential risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy.

Aims: To study the correlation between sialic acid levels with lipid profile and anthropometric variables in type 2 diabetes mellitus and type 2 diabetics with nephropathy.

Study Design: Case control study

Place and duration of study: study was conducted at department of biochemistry and department of medicine at aj institute of medical sciences, mangalore for a period of 2 years.

Methodology: Study population included 75 subjects in the age group of 40-70 years out of whom 25 subjects were type 2 diabetics (newly diagnosed or known diabetics on treatment without any complications), 25 subjects were type 2 diabetics with nephropathy and 25 were age and sex matched normal controls. Serum and urine sialic acid, lipid profile and anthropometric variables were measured in study subjects.

Results: Serum and urine sialic acid showed a positive correlation with total cholesterol triglycerides, ldl-c and body mass index (p value <0.001) which was statistically significant in both type 2 diabetics and diabetics with nephropathy when compared with controls. Serum and urine sialic acid showed a negative correlation with hdl-c(p value <0.001)  which was statistically significant in both type 2 diabetics and  diabetics with nephropathy  when compared with controls . Serum and urine sialic acid showed no correlation with waist hip ratio in both type 2 diabetics and type 2 diabetics with nephropathy.

Conclusion: Low grade inflammation is implicated in the causation and progression of type 2 dm and its complcations. The estimation of serum and urine sialic acid will indicate tissue damage and thus aid early intervention in helping to prevent microvascular complications in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Open Access Review Article

Diabetic Retinopathy– An Overview

ASV Prasad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43625

Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness world over. Neurovascular degeneration of the retina is considered presently as the cause as against the vascular changes which are believed to be causative previously. In fact the neuronal changes are shown to ante-date the vascular changes. There is complex interaction of many cells like pericytes, mullers cells, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells as well as factors like advanced glycation products, Oxidative and metabolic stress, inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes, various growth factors and glycoproteins etc. in the pathogenesis of DR. Various biochemical pathways like Polyol pathway, glucosamine pathway, AGE pathway and PKC pathways interacting with one another is also recognised as having a role in the pathogenesis of DR. But the common link responsible for all these factors involvement linking to DM2 is still not clear. The mechanism explaining Benfotiamine, a thiamine analogue found to be useful in treating DR, though attractive in integrating the various biochemical pathways cited above, is not comprehensive. The concept of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a better alternative explanation linking up all pathogenic factors concerned to chronic hyperglycaemia of DzM2. But antioxidants proved futile in treating DR. It may be useful to remember that extensive ROS production in DM2 is consequent to shift of energy metabolism from glycolysis to B-oxidation of fats. unless this is reversed, ROS production continues. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and UKPDS are the two landmark clinical trials that clearly showed the relationship between chronic hyperglycaemia and genesis of DR. progression in T1DM and T2DM patients, respectively. Randomized controlled trials have shown that early treatment of DM2 can reduce an individual’s risk of severe visual loss by 57%.intensive glycaemic control appeared long lasting because of the metabolic memory, also known as ‘legacy effect’. A term which explains the beneficial effects of immediate intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia with a sustained benefit with respect to the outcomes for many years, regardless of glycaemia in the later course of diabetes. Hence the current emphasis is the prevention of DR with strict glycaemic control in DM2 ab initio.