Open Access Original Research Article

Functional and Histomorphological Assessments of Liver and Kidney in Matured Female Albino Wistar Rats Following Ingestion of Citrullus lanatus Seed Extracts

Ekwere Timothy Ifon, Takim Burch Ndifon, Itemobong Samuel Ekaidem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42615

Oil from different seeds in fruits has been exploited for nutritional and health benefits ranging from provision of essential nutrients for cellular metabolic processes to being an alternative route to the orthodox drugs in the quest for a better living. However, adverse consequences following consumption of this seed oils on both the liver and kidney are not well known. The present study was carried out to assess the integrity of the liver and kidney following the administration of different doses of Citrullus lanatus seed extracts (oil) to mature female albino Wistar rats. Twenty - four female albino Wistar rats weighing between 179 g – 257 g were randomly divided into four groups of six animals per group. Animals in group 1(control group) received normal rat chow placebo. The experimental groups 2, 3, and 4 received 932.0 mg, 1864.0 mg and 2796.0 mg seed oil extract / kg body weight in 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 ml respectively for twenty-one (21) days by oral gavaging. The effects of treatment on the integrity of the liver and kidney were assessed by measuring the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) for liver and Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 and Creatinine for kidney as well as the histomorphology of the liver and kidney for possible distortions. The results showed a dose-dependent decrease that was only significant (p<0.05) in group 4 relative to the control group for ALT, while both AST and ALP showed non-significant (p>0.05) changes. Furthermore, non-significant changes were recorded for Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3 and Creatinine. Histomorphologically, the liver and kidney integrity were not altered except for fatty infiltration of group 4 hepatocytes relative to control group and hyperchromasia of group 4 kidney relative to control. Generally, this study showed that Citrullus lanatus seed oil consumption results are of great advantage to liver and kidney tissues when consumed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Mycoremediation and Selected Surfactants on Growth Performance of Fluted Pumpkin In Crude Oil Impacted Soil and the Nephrotoxic Effects of Leaves Aqueous Extract on Wistar Rats

K. T. Nwauche, F. C. Anacletus, E. P. Berezi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42190

This study investigated the mycoremediation effects of Pleurotus ostreatus and selected surfactants (Triton x-100 and meshed Costus afer stem) on the growth performance of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) in crude oil impacted soil and their effects on the electrolytes, urea and creatinine levels of Wistar rats fed with aqueous leaf extract of fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) cultivated on the amended soil. Crude oil highly impacted soil excavated from an oil spill site at Obeche community in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was used. Remediation was induced using white rot fungus (Pleurotus ostreatus), phyto-emulsified surfactant (Costus afer stem) and chemical surfactant (Triton x-100). Seven experimental cells (20cm diameter x 20cm high polypropylene bags) labelled A-G, each containing 2kg of polluted soil were used. The application of amendments to the crude oil impacted soil affected the growth of fluted pumpkin. Cell D (PSS + Triton x-100) was observed to have the highest number of leaves (15.00 ± 0.70), highest vine length (45.00 ± 0.00), highest fresh weight of leaves (16.50 ± 0.70) when compared with other cells. The control cell, cell A (CISS) and cell F (CISS + Pleurotus ostreatus + Triton x-100) also were observed to have a positive effect on the growth performance of fluted pumpkin. When the aqueous leaf extract of fluted pumpkin was administered to the Wistar rats, potassium level was observed to be decreased in groups C to G with cell D having the lowest value (3.99 ± 0.00) when compared with group A (29.39±34.44). The results also indicated that groups C, D, F, and G were decreased when compared with group A for sodium, only group E was decreased when compared with group A for Chlorine, all the groups for Calcium where significantly (p≤0.05) decreased when compared with group A. There was a significant (p≤0.05) difference when group A is compared with group G for Bicarbonate. Histopathological evaluation of the kidney of Wistar rats revealed the presence of congested renal vessels and haemorhage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Predictors of Glycaemic Control among Ghanaian Type 2 Diabetic Patients Using Diabetes Self-management Approach

Richard Apini, Reginald Annan, Charles Apprey, Odeafo Asamoah-Boakye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42976

Aims: Management of a complex metabolic disease like diabetes can be very challenging since it involves a careful combination of medication, exercise, diet and regular monitoring of blood glucose in order to achieve good glucose control. The study aimed at determining predictors of glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic patients using diabetes self-management approach.

Study Design: A Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of study: Diabetes clinic at two selected district hospitals in Ashanti region of Ghana.

Methodology: A structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic, medical history and dietary information. A validated Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire was also used. Serum glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) was used as the standard for glycaemic control.

Results: Mean glycated haemoglobin level for study participants was 7.2%±0.2. Optimal glycaemic control was significantly associated with diabetes self-management (r= -0.428), diabetes-related distress (r= 0.381) and acceptance and action on diabetes (r= 0.316). In. addition to the above associations, diabetes self-management (β= -0.297, p=0.007) and diabetes-related distress (β= 0.219, p=0.028) could significantly predict glycated haemoglobin but not acceptance and action on diabetes (β= 0.046, p=0.665).

Conclusions: All the three study variables correlated with glycated haemoglobin of study participants but only diabetes self-management and diabetes-related distress had predictive value. Further, an epidemiological study is needed to ascertain the strength of the effects. Various health stakeholders should encourage diabetic patients to understand the importance of diabetes self-management which may help in better glycaemic control, disease management and better quality of life.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ethno-medicinal Use of Crotalaria retusa L. (Fabaceae), a Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Toxic Plant

Ablassé Rouamba, Vincent Ouédraogo, Issa Karama, Moussa Compaoré, Martin Kiendrebeogo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43635

Objective: This current study was designed to investigate the ethno-medicinal uses of C. retusa and to learn about the knowledges of its toxicity.

Methods: Questionnaires were administered to herbalists and traditional healers from Ouagadougou town in national language Mooré or Dioula. Data on the ethno-medicinal use of C. retusa, the plant part used, the modes of preparation and administration and the knowledges on its toxicity were collected for each interviewed respondents. Relative frequency of citation of each disease was calculated using Microsoft Excel software

Results: C. retusa is mentioned by all the respondents to be used in the folklore system of medicine for the treat of various diseases including infectious and psychotropic diseases. Nine (09) diseases treated with C. retusa have been cited by respondents. The most diseases cited were congenital syphilis (72.5%) followed by malaria (7.5%) and hallucinations (7.5%). The whole plant is more used and the decoction is the main form of preparation. The main modes of the administration of the drug were purgative, drink and bath. The toxicity of C. retusa hasn’t been stated by no respondents.

Conclusion: C. retusa is a potent medicinal plant of the folklore system medicine of Burkina Faso.  A general lack of knowledge on the potential toxicity of this plant among the herbalists and traditional healers is also evident. Further investigations are necessary to inform about the toxicity of this plant and preventive measures to undertake for the prevention of any intoxication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ethanol-methanol Extracts of the Leaf, Stem Bark and Root of Jatropha curcas on Selected Liver Markers of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

Atamgba Agbor Asuk

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43357

Aims: Diabetes mellitus is a growing problem worldwide entailing enormous financial burden and medicinal policy issues. It is presently considered among the top ten leading causes of death globally resulting in a raised level of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (the most sensitive marker of liver cell damage). This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effect of ethanol-methanol extracts of leaf, stem bark and the root of Jatropha curcas on serum aminotransferases (aspartate amino transferase (AST) and ALT) and total protein (TP) of streptozotocin - induced diabetic rats.

Methodology: Fifty-four (54) male Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were assigned according to body weight into nine (9) groups of six (6) rats each. Group I was the normal control and given water and rat chow only, groups II, III, IV, V and VI were induced with diabetes using streptozotocin. Group II served as the diabetic control and was therefore, left untreated, while groups III, IV and V were treated with leaf, stem bark, root extracts of Jatropha curcas, respectively and group VI was given a standard drug (Glibenclamide). The remaining groups VII, VIII and IX were not induced with diabetes but were given normal leaf, stem bark and root extracts, respectively. The animals were sacrificed after 14 days and blood was collected for the study.

Results: The result obtained showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum AST of groups III, IV, VII, VIII and IX compared with the diabetic control (DC). The serum ALT showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in group II (DC) compared with the normal control, while groups VII, VIII and IX were significantly (p<0.05) decreased compared with the normal control.  All the test groups showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum ALT compared with the diabetic control. There was no significant (p≥0.05) difference in serum TP of all the test groups compared with the normal control, however, there was significant (p<0.05) increase in the TP of diabetic control.

Conclusion: This study revealed that Jatropha curcas plant extracts might confer protection against diabetic-induced hepatocellular damage as evidenced by normalisation of serum levels of total protein and ALT of treated diabetic groups. The Jatropha curcas leaf extract appeared to have exhibited a better protection against hepatocellular diabetic-induced damage than the stem bark and root.