Open Access Other: Correction

Corrigendum: Effects of Aqueous Fraction of Ethanolic Extract of Balanites aegyptiaca Stem-bark on Glucose Metabolic Enzymes in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

D. H. Mhya, K. M. Anigo, I. A. Umar, J. O. Alegbejo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/27598

Aims: The study examines effect of aqueous-fraction of ethanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca stem-bark on enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats in a bid to ascertain its anti-hyperglycemic and possible mechanism of action.

Methodology: Diabetes was induced in male rats by intra-peritoneal injection of 60 mg/kg body weight of STZ.  Dried powdered Balanites aegyptiaca stem-bark was defatted with hexane and extracted using ethanol followed by solvent-solvent fractionation with water and ethyl acetate. The aqueous fraction (ASF) obtained was subjected to acute toxicity on wistar rats using a gradient dosage, where 1/10th of lethal dose was calculated and used for the study. It was orally administered at a dose of 400 mg/kg body weight of diabetic rats, metformin (200 mg/kg body wt) serve as reference drug and diabetic/normal untreated rats received 10% dimethyl sulfurdioxide for the 28 days treatment period. On day 29th, rats were sacrificed; blood and liver samples were collected. Liver tissues were homogenized, centrifuged and the supernatants were used for assay of glucose metabolic enzymes while serum was used for biochemical markers estimations.

Results: Results obtained showed no death or lethal effect in the acute toxicity study up to a dose of 4000 mg/kg body wt. Therefore, the LD50 value was considered to be more than 4000 mg/kg body wt. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with ASF showed a significant (P<0.05) reversal effect in activities of the glucose metabolic enzymes assayed compare to untreated diabetic rats. Glucokinase activity was enhanced (2.98±2.23 U/min/mg Protein) against untreated diabetic (2.22±0.02 U/min/mg Protein) as well as glycogen synthase (12.48±0.11 x10-2 U/min/mg Protein) against untreated diabetic (9.41±0.34 x10-2 U/min/mg Protein. Glucose-6-phosphatase activity was suppressed in the diabetic rats received ASF (0.26±0.03 U/min/mg Protein) compare to the untreated diabetic (1.44±0.05 U/min/mg Protein). Glycogen content of the treated diabetic rats was elevated to 13.77±0.32 mg/g liver against the diabetic untreated rats (10.69±0.32 mg/g liver). A significant reduction in fasting blood glucose was recorded from the ASF treated diabetic rats (290.4±18.4 mg/dL) compared to diabetic untreated rats (336.0±11.9 mg/dL).

Conclusion: The study suggested that Balanites aegyptiaca stem-bark may contained compound(s) that has the capacity to reverse the activity of glucose metabolic enzymes to exert antihyperglycemic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypoglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Manniophyton fulvum Aqueous Root Extract on Streptozotocin-induced Hyperglycemic Wistar Rats

Odinaka E. Mgbeke, Jude C. Ikewuchi, Augustine A. Uwakwe, S. A. U. Offiah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42234

This study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of M. fulvum on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia in Wistar rats. The oxidative damage in the blood, liver, pancreas and kidney cells, hepatic enzyme activities and lipid profile of the Wistar rats were also ascertained. Rats were exposed to STZ alone at 160 mg/kg body weight for one week to induced hyperglycemia before treatment with M. fulvum at 83 and 113 mg/kg for 28 consecutive days. Results showed significant elevation in the levels of blood glucose level, amylase activity, serum lipid profile and serum renal markers (total protein, urea and creatinine) in the hyperglycemic rats. Moreover, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats showed significantly (p < 0.05) reduced antioxidant status (reduced levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities as well as decreased in reduced glutathione and increased level of malondialdehide). M. fulvum was able to demonstrate marked hypoglycemic effect and ameliorate the above mentioned biochemical markers. Streptozotocin-induced rats had significant histopathological damages found in the pancreas when compared with the control. The present study shows that M. fulvum possesses significant hypoglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats due to its ability to effectively reduce or ameliorate the increase in blood glucose levels, lipid profile and oxidative damages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of High Sensitive C-reactive Protein levels with Mean Arterial Pressure and Serum Calcium in Women with Mild and Severe Pre-eclampsia

Prerna Bansal, Suman Jain, Anupam Kumar Bansal, I. Anand Shaker, G. G. Kaushik

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43394

Background:  Low grade systemic inflammation is considered as a risk factor for the progression of inflammation related disorders such as pre-eclampsia (PE). It is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema during pregnancy. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a useful marker of inflammation that is able to predict the risk of PE. Urinary protein and trace elements like serum calcium may also play an important role in evaluating the severity of PE.

Aim: To compare the mean results of serum levels of hs-CRP and calcium in mild and severe pre-eclamptic women with healthy pregnant women and to investigate the relationship, if any between levels of serum hs-CRP with mean arterial pressure (MAP) and serum calcium.

Material and Methods: A case control study was performed on 50-50 primigravidas with mild and severe PE as cases as per clinical guidelines and 50 healthy pregnant women as controls. They were all age and parity matched primigravidas at the third trimester of pregnancy. 

Results: By using ANOVA, statistically highly significant mean values of hs-CRP and serum calcium were observed among all groups (healthy pregnant women, mild pre-eclamptic and severe pre-eclamptic women). Significant positive correlation is found between hs-CRP with MAP, while the negative association is detected among hs-CRP and serum calcium.

Conclusion: Serum hs-CRP may be feasible to be used as a sensitive biomarker for determining women at risk of PE. There is a significant influence of calcium supplementation during the antenatal period and the occurrence of pregnancy induced hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal and Spatial Changes in Host Defense Enzymes in Response to Fusarium Wilt in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh)

Jhuma Datta, Nand Lal

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41986

Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium udum Butler (Fud) is a constant threat to pigeonpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of pigeonpea-Fud interaction is necessary to improve resistance to Fud and thereby the productivity of pigeonpea. Temporal and spatial changes were studied in defense enzymes namely catalase, peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase at pre-initiation (S1), disease initiation (S2) and severe diseased (S3) stages in root, stem and leaf tissues of 2 susceptible and 2 resistant cultivars of pigeonpea inoculated with Fud. Comparison of various treatment combinations revealed that all the defence enzymes showed temporal and spatial variation in activity/expression pattern. PO increased in all the tissues of all the varieties from S1 to S2 and declined thereafter in S3 stage, and induction was higher in resistant cultivars. Catalase and PPO were induced highly in resistant cultivars inoculated with Fud, and the pattern was stage-specific and tissue-specific in nature. Catalase induction occurred at S2 in uninoculated plants whereas it started at S1 in Fud inoculated plants. PPO level diminished from S2 to S3 stage, and in susceptible varieties, it reached even below the control. PAL, β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase activity were induced at S1, and S2 and values at S3 decreased progressively. Induction of chitinase was significantly high in leaves whereas β-1,3-glucanase activity was high in stem tissues. Both control and challenged plants had a higher level of β-1,3-glucanase activity at later stages of disease development, but the proportionate increase was much higher in resistant cultivars. The activity/expression pattern of these defence enzymes reveals their use as biochemical markers for resistance and provides scope for manipulating their expression and development of wilt-resistant transgenic pigeonpea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutrients and Constituents Relevant to Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anti-Breast Cancer Properties of Salvia officinalis L.

Amira M. G. Darwish, Gamal M. Hamad, Sobhy A. El Sohaimy

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43273

Objective: Comprehensive assessment of the chemical composition of sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.) in order to highlight constituents relevant to the antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer potentials, in addition to determining safe dose to facilitate its application in functional foods and dairy products.

Methods: High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was employed to determine constituents such as amino acids, fatty acids and phenolic compounds content. Antioxidant activity was characterized using, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power methods. The antimicrobial potentials were examined against nine pathogenic strains. MDA-MB-231 cell line was used to assess anticancer activity.

Results: Sage was found to be a good source of calcium, iron and zinc (894.3, 84 and 5.5 mg/       100 g respectively) and vitamins B6 and B12 (1.5 and 0.3 mg/100 g respectively). Performed HPLC analysis indicated the rich content of essential amino acids, lysine, phenylalanine and leucine (10.4, 0.7 and 0.45 g/100 g), unsaturated fatty acids, Omega 3, 6 and 9 (6.46, 4.40 and 3.13 g/       100 g) and phenolic compounds, quercetin and cinnamic (604.8 and 390.4 μg/mL), which interpreted its high antioxidant powers. Sage revealed antioxidant potentials with IC50 and EC50 reached (27.5 and 239.5 mg/mL respectively), and antimicrobial effect against the examined pathogenic strains with MICs reached 6.25 mm against Staph. aureus, E. coli and Candida albicans, not to mention its anticancer effect as an extra pharmacological feature, when sage performed an anti-proliferative activity with IC50 of 300 µg/mL, against MDA-MB-231 cell line.

Conclusion: Obtained results emphasis the sage leaves content of variable nutrients and active compounds that reflected on its vast nutritional and pharmacological potentials such as; antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect against breast MDA-MB-231 cell line, that could nominate it as applicable food bio-preservative in functional foods and dairy products.