Open Access Short Research Article

Identification and Isolation of Fungi in Abattoir and Poultry Amended Plots in Ilorin, Southern Guinea Savanna

M. A. Adegbite, A. R. Sanda, I. Ahmed, M. Ibrahim, A. O. Adegbite

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42353

Traditional methods for soil remediation are often expensive and energy consuming and this has given rise to a new and ecologically safer method known as mycoremediation. A field experiment was carried out at the University of Ilorin Dam site to isolate and identify fungi present in organic amended plots which are capable of remediating heavy metal polluted soil of Asa River. Randomized Complete Block design in split plot arrangement was adopted using two treatments: Poultry Dropping (PD) and Abattoir Effluent (AE) at five levels i.e control, 1.3 t/ha, 2.6 t/ha, 1.3 t/ha+NPK120KgN, 2.6t/ha+NPK120KgN for abattoir effluent, and poultry droppings at control, 10t/ha, 15t/ha, 10t/ha+NPK120KgN and 15 t/ha+NPK120KgN having three (3) replicates. Soil samples collected before and after planting were analysed for heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Cr, Cd) using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. Result obtained showed that organic waste are effective in bioremediation of Asa River sediment with abattoir effluent having a reduction of 99.04% and poultry dropping 98.72% of heavy metal concentration in the soil which varied in the order of: Mn>Fe>Pb>Zn>Cu>Co>Ni>Cr>Cd. Result obtained also showed that eleven metal resistant Fungi were identified from abattoir effluent and poultry dropping amended plots i.e Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride,Fusarium solani, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichophyton verrusocum, Fusarium oxysporum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus ustus andMicrosporum nanum. Aspergillus niger was observedtohave the highest population (19% in poultry droppings and 19.6% in abattoir effluent).

Open Access Original Research Article

Gas Chromatographic FID Evaluation of Roots of Manniophyton fulvum

O. E. Mgbeke, E. C. Kalu, S. C. Okereke

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42198

The phytochemical composition of the root extract of Manniophyton fulvum was screened by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization and pulse flame photometric detectors. Among the twenty flavonoids detected, only quercetin (107.44mg/100g), kaemoferol (66.19mg/100g), quercetrin (49.87mg/100g), rutin (28.52mg/100g) and, apigenin (28.67mg/100g) representing (37.99%,23.41%, 10.14%, 17.64%, and 10.09%) respectively were prominent. The rest were in insignificant amount. The aqueous root extract contain nine glycoside compound consisting mainly of digoxin (27.166mg/100mg 58.5%), digitoxin (17.9 mg/100g (38.51%) and 0.8mg/100g (2.99%) of kampferol-3-rhamnoside.The rest were of a very little amount. For saponin, the FID gas chromatography analysis revealed that euphol, saponine, sapogenin had the highest concentration of 20.268490mg/100g, 0.3369mg/100g, and 0.065978mg/100g making up of 97.9%,1.62% and 0.3%  percentage composition respectively. The rest were in insignificant amount. Seven benzoic acids were detected by the GC- FID consisting mainly of p-hydroxyl benzoic 6.288160mg/100g (65.4%), gallic acid 2.96280 mg/100g (30.8%) and gentisic acid 0.355mg/100g (3.71%). Out of the ten carotenoid detected, the highest concentration were violaxanthine 47.80526 (49.95%), astraxanthine 26.62538, (27.82%), lutein 8.24911 (8.93%) and neoxanthine 6.54195mg/100g. (6.84%). For phytosterol, the bioactive compound include sitosterol 14.2007mg/100g (71.53%), campesterol  3.54mg/100g (17.85%) and stigmasterol 2.1093mg/100g (10.6%) making up highest concentration. Three allicin compound were detected which include diallylthiosulphinate (95.92%), methyl allylthiosulphinate (3.50%) and allyl methyl thiosulphinate (0.58%). These results show that Manniophyton fulvum has many bioactive molecules suggesting strong therapeutic and nutraceutical potentials suggesting their likely uses in the management and prevention of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephrotoprotective Effect of Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter Leaf) Extract on Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Adult Male Rats

Atamgba Agbor Asuk, Melvin Nnaemeka Ugwu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42910

Background: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The condition is associated with symptoms like frequency in urination, hesitancy, nocturia, weak urine stream and sexual dysfunction. The effect of Vernonia amygdalina extract (VA) on kidney and liver function indices in BPH was investigated.

Methods: A total of 30 rats weighing 200-300 g were divided according to body weight into five groups (n=6). One group was used as a control and the other groups received subcutaneous injections of testosterone and estradiol for 3 weeks to induce BPH. Groups I and II were treated with different doses of VA extracts and group III received finasteride, all by gavages for thirty-five days. While group IV was left untreated, group V served as normal control. After thirty-five days of treatment with VA extract, the rats were anaesthetised by short contact with trichloromethane vapour. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and the sera centrifuged and used for the determination of different biochemical indices. The prostates were harvested and weighed.

Results: The level of urea and creatinine were significantly (P<0.05) reduced when compared to the BPH control. No significant differences in serum concentrations of AST, ALT, ALP, and GGT were recorded in all treatment groups compared to the BPH control.

Conclusion: The extract of Vernonia amygdalina seed exhibited nephroprotective effect on the kidney of BPH induced rats, while there was no observable effect on the liver as benign prostate hyperplasia appeared not to have had any alteration on the liver enzymes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Aqueous Extract on Some Biochemical and Haematological Parameters in Albino Rats

B. Hussaini, M. Y. Tula, G. A. Onyeje, G. G. Memi, U. I. Nne

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42671

Aims: The study was carried out to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Chrysanthemum indicum on albino rats.

Study Design: In-vivo acute toxicity, haematological and Biochemical effect of Chrysanthemum indicum.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Chemical Science Technology, Federal Polytechnic Mubi, Adamawa State, between October to December 2017.

Methodology: For acute toxicity, four groups of 3 male rats each were dosed orally with Chrysanthemum indicum aqueous extract at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg/kg body weight, the animals were observed for mortality, clinical sign and gross pathological changes for a period of 14 days. For sub-acute toxicity and other parameters, four groups of five albino rats were equally dosed orally with 0 (control), 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg (experimental group) body weight of an aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum indicum for six (6) weeks. After, complete administration, the biochemical and haemological indices were investigated and determined appropriately.

Results: The aqueous extract of Chrysanthemum indicum was found to be safe at 4000mg/kg body weight in acute toxicity study. Results further showed that there are changes compared to control and group administered the extract in sub-acute toxicity study. In RBC, from 5.40 to 5.10, and MCV, from 78.00 to 82.30 which were significantly different (p<0.05) but non-significant decrease (p<0.05) was noticed in AST, albumin, and urea. However, the level Protein, (13.00 to 10.00) ALT, (7.00 to 5.00) ALP (15.00 to 10.25) bilirubin (13.00 to 10.00) and creatinine (88.00 to 84.00) significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the experimental groups when compared to the control group.

Conclusion: Although the acute toxicity of Chrysanthemum indicum suggests its safety at 4000 mg/kg body weight, however, the findings of sub-acute toxicity suggest that the therapeutic and herbal tea use of Chrysanthemum indicum plant is not safe especially when taken orally in high dose for a prolonged period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Some Bioactive Compounds in Raw and Boiled Egg Varieties: Eggs, Potential Nutraceuticals?

Eridiong O. Onyenweaku, Gregory E. Oko, Winifred A. Fila

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/43083

Aims: To comparatively evaluate some bioactive compounds (egg white proteins) of chicken (exotic and local), turkey, quail and guinea fowl eggs in their raw and boiled forms. It also aimed at ascertaining claims on egg being a functional food.

Study Design:  Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Calabar, Calabar and Department of Pharmacology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, February to July 2017.

Methodology: Freshly-laid poultry-bred eggs were purchased, cleaned and divided into 2: one batch was broken and the egg white separated while the other was boiled by submerging the eggs in boiling water at 100°C for 10 min, before taking out the egg whites. The raw and boiled albumen were homogenized before analyses. A combination of methods involving separation of egg white proteins using ion-exchange chromatography, purification using tangential flow filtration and quantification using the colorimetric Bradford assay. Results of the quantitative estimation of avidin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and flavoprotein concentrations were statistically compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Results: It was observed that concentrations of the bioactive compounds (except ovalbumin) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher among the raw eggs than the boiled ones. Raw turkey egg had the highest avidin content (15.83 ± 0.15 µg/g) and this was significantly different (P < 0.05) from the others, while quail had the lowest avidin concentration (8.47 ± 0.20 µg/g) even among the boiled samples. Ovalbumin, a storage protein, was the most abundant of the egg white proteins (50-55%).

Conclusion: Quail eggs are healthier due to their relatively safer content of avidin, higher contents of flavoprotein and ovotransferrin; turkey egg with exceptionally higher avidin concentrations, should be consumed in moderation in order to reduce the risk of biotin deficiency. The presence of these bioactive compounds in significant quantities also show that eggs may serve as functional foods.