Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf and Stem-bark Aqueous Extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis

Galo Yahaya Sara, Samaila Dauda, Andrew Emmanuel, Yusuf Yakubu Bhutto, Innocent Joseph

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/40959

Objective: To investigates the phytochemical composition and antimicrobial activities of the leaf and stem-bark extracts of D. mespiliformis against some pathogenic microorganisms.

Methods: The leaf and stem-bark extracts of Diospyros mespiliformis from Ebanaceae family, which is used as herbal remedies for the cure of many ailments by natives in northern part of Nigeria, were collected from Mubi in Mubi North Local Government area of Adamawa State, air dried, pulverised, extracted by simple overnight maceration techniques and analyzed. Aqueous extracts of the aforementioned parts of the plant were screened phytochemically for its chemical constituents and subjected to antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi.

Results: The results show that alkaloids, anthraquinones, carbohydrates, flavonoids, phlobatannins, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids are present in both the leaf and the stem-bark extracts of the plant while glycosides are present in the leaf extract but absent in the stem-bark extract. The antimicrobial activity reveals that both the leaf and the stem-bark extracts of the plant, showed high sensitivity to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus pyogenes and Salmonella typhi.

Conclusion: The phytochemical constituents and the antimicrobial potential of the plant part may account for varied ethnobotanical uses of the plants in traditional medicine in Nigeria, which if further purified can be used to source novel antibiotics. 

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP) and Urinary Calcium/Creatinine Ratio in Normal Pregnancy and Pregnancy Induced Hypertension in Gujarat, India

Smita N. Vasava, Amitkumar V. Maheshwari, Subhankar Kayal, Jagruti Dholakiya, Kedar Mehta, Hariom Sharma

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42978

Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy. It is the most common leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in females. Serum high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is one of the suitable markers for low grade inflammation evaluation. Urinary calcium-creatinine ratio (UCa/Cr) is a valuable marker for prediction of PIH.

Aim: To measure & correlate serum hs-CRP and urinary calcium-creatinine ratio in between pregnancy-induced hypertension and normal pregnancy.

Material & Methods:  In present study total 150 subjects attending Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology at Sir Takhtsinhji Hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, were included which were categorized in two groups. Group A: 75 patients of pregnancy-induced hypertension; Group B: 75 normal pregnant women as a control group. They were primarily diagnosed based on measurement of blood pressure, clinical examination followed by biochemical investigations like hs-CRP, urinary calcium & creatinine, RBS, urea, creatinine, uric acid, CK-MB. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before enrolling in the study.

Results: No significant change in the levels of biological parameters like RBS, urea, creatinine and CK-MB was observed in both the study groups (p>0.05) except serum uric acid shows a significant difference (p<0.001). The levels of hs-CRP were found to be significantly higher in patients of pregnancy-induced hypertension (7.81±3.681)as compared to the normal pregnant women (3.11±1.972)(p<0.0001) .UCa/Cr ratio had more sensitivity and specificity than hs-CRP for prediction of pregnancy-induced hypertension compared to normal pregnancy.

Conclusion: UCa/Cr ratio can be used as a more sensitive and specific test to detect pregnancy induced hypertension.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Sun Dried Mango (Mangifera spp) Kernel as a Feed` Resource on the Serological Parameters of Laying Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)

F. B. Abang, O. J. Nwani, Y. C. Shettima

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/32375

An experiment was conducted using one hundred and fourty four unsexed laying Japanese quails of about two weeks old to investigate the effect of varying levels of SMKM on the health status of quails. The results for serum biochemical composition showed that serum sodium (Na+), serum potassium (K+), serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) and creatinine were within normal ranges. However, ALT, AST, total bilirubin and serum chloride were not within the normal reference ranges. It is concluded that SMKM could replace maize up to 50% without any nutritional disorder as the parameters that were not within the normal reference ranges did not follow a regular pattern and these observations were applicable to the control experiment as well, revealing that diets would not have accounted for these anomalies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Insecticidal Potentials and Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from the Leaves of Phyllanthus amarus and Stachytarpheta cayennensis in Nigeria

C. O. Okonkwo, C. M. Onyeji

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42315

This research evaluated the insecticidal efficacy of essential oils from the leaves of Phyllanthus amarus and Stachytarpheta cayennensis on Periplaneta americana (American cockroach), Schistocerca americana (American grasshopper) and Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito). A gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of essential oils was also carried out to determine the active components of the oil likely responsible for the observed Insecticidal properties. Insects were exposed to 0.5g of essential oils as well as the positive control (Raid) for 24 hours and mortality observed and recorded every 4 hours. Both essential oils caused 100% mortality in test insects at different time intervals. P. amarus and S. cayennensis caused 60% and 73% mortality in A. gambiae at 8hours, 60% and 90% mortality in P. americana at 12 hours and 40% and 90% mortality in Schistocerca americana at 16hours. In all cases, S. americana recorded the least mortality among the test insects as compared to the other insects. S. cayennensis oil proved to be more potent than P. amarus oil. The result of the GC-MS analysis carried out on essential oils from both plants revealed the presence of; Decanoic acid, ethylester (Ethyl decanoate) 6.02%, Dodecanoic acid, ethylester (Ethyl dodecanoate) 11.26%, Tetradecanoic acid, ethylester (Ethyl tetradecanoate) 9.22%, Hexadecanoic acid, ethylester (Ethyl hexadecanoate) 10.16%, Phytol 28.52%, 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, rthylester (Ethyl linolenate) 11.34%, Stigmasta-7,25-dien 3-ol 7.95% and Decanoic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl decanoate) 6.05%, Dodecanoic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl dodecanoate) 10.89%, Tetradecanoic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl tetradecanoate) 8.32%, Hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester (Ethyl palmitate) 5.01%, Phytol 8.27%, Linoleic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl linolenate) 5.79%, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, ethyl ester (Ethyl linolenate) 5.79%, Vitamin E 8.29%, Stigmasterol 9.38% and beta-Sitosterol 16.67% for S. cayannensis and P. amarus respectively. The result from this study indicates that essential oils from these two plants contain potent insecticidal agents that are available, affordable, and effective in the control of insect pests as against the toxic synthetic chemicals currently in use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spermatotoxic Effects of Some Medicinal Plants (Carica papaya, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Ipomoea batatas) on Sperm Quality and Testicular Weight in Male African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

P. B. Ekpo, U. U. Uno, A. J. Umoyen, L. E. Okonko

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42753

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of pawpaw (Carica papaya) seeds, hibiscus plant (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) leaves and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves extracts on sperm quality (sperm motility, sperm density, semen volume) and weight of testes of male Clarias gariepinus. One hundred and twenty (120) juveniles of C. gariepinus were collected from the University of Calabar fish farm. The 120 fish were randomly divided into 12 experimental tanks measuring 80x80x80 cm (L x W x H), with three tanks for each treatment, using a completely randomized design (CRD). Three grams (3g) of each test plant were incorporated into 1kg of Coppens feed (3g/kg) and reformulated into four experimental diets; Treatment A- Control, B- Pawpaw seed meal (PSM), C-Hibiscus leaf meal (HLM) and D- sweet potato leaf meal (SPLM). The experiment was done in three replications. The fish were fed twice daily for 6 months. Data obtained were analyzed using a one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that fish fed with HLM had significantly (p =.05) higher testicular weight when compared with the control and other test plants. Moreover, sperm volume and density significantly (p =.05) reduced in fish samples treated with PSM and SPLM when compared with the control and fish fed with HLM. The highest mean sperm volume and density were obtained in fish samples fed with HLM. No significant difference was observed in the sperm motility of the fish in all the treatment groups. Conclusively, this study reveals the pro-fertility potential of H. rosa-sinensis in male C. gariepinus while C. papaya and I. batatas possess anti-fertility properties. Therefore, HLM can be utilized as feed additive to minimize the dependence on synthetic drugs as fertility enhancing agents.