Open Access Original Research Article

Unbound Iron Binding Capacity (UIBC) – An Alternative Lab Parameter for Iron Stores?

Anjima Soman, Usha Adiga

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42323

Introduction: Iron is a component of a number of proteins including haemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes and enzymes deficiency of which leads to iron deficiency anemia and excess in iron overload. There is a panel of tests to assess iron status in the body. A low serum iron & ferritin with an elevated TIBC are diagnostic of iron deficiency. While a low serum ferritin is virtually diagnostic of iron deficiency. AS ferritin is an acute phase reactant, it may not be a good marker for iron overload.

The objective of the study was to find out whether UIBC is an alternative lab parameter of iron storage/ overload compared to ferritin.

Methodology: In a retrospective study conducted, data of 118 patients were collected, who were categorized as iron deficient and those with iron overload. Ferritin, UIBC and serum iron were assayed and remaining parameters were calculated.ROC curves were constructed using SPSS version 16 software.

Results: Area under the curve (AUC) for ferritin as a marker of iron storage, AUC for UIBC, serum iron, TIBC and transferrin were 0.108, 0.607, 0.098, 0.098 respectively. In patients with iron depletion, it was observed that AUC was 0.371 and 0.566 respectively for ferritin and UIBC respectively.

Conclusion: Ferritin is a better marker of iron overload compared to UIBC, however, UIBC may be a better marker in iron store depletion. Entire iron panel if correlated and interpreted would be more useful in assessing iron stores.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Toxicity Studies of Rauwolfia vomitoria Leaf and Root Extracts in Wistar Rats

Asoro, Iroghama I., Ebuehi, Osaretin A. T., Igwo- Ezikpe, Miriam N.

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41638

Aim: Rauwolfia vomitoria Afzel (Apocynaceae) is used in the African traditional medical practice for the management of various diseases such as a cough, malaria and as an anti-psychotic. The present study investigates the toxicological potential of the administration of the leaf and root extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria on the brain, kidney and liver of male Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: The toxicity study was carried out by Lorke’s method. For the acute study, thirteen groups of 5 rats each were orally administered 10, 100 and 1000 mg/kg of aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and root of  R. vomitoria. Mortality was recorded after 24h. For the subacute, thirteen groups of five rats each were orally given doses of 1600, 2900 and 5000 mg aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and root of R. vomitoria. Observation continued for 2weeks after administration to check for any mortality arising from delayed toxicity. In the end, surviving animals were sacrificed and pathological changes were observed.

Results: There was a dose-dependent increase in the liver enzymes in the subchronic and subacute. Histological studies reveal an area of inflammations in the liver subacute study. No significant differences were noticed in the concentration of urea, creatinine and the electrolytes among the various group and control. There were no marked cellular changes in the kidney tissue. Convulsion was observed in a subacute study among the animals at a high dose of 5000 mg of the root extract.

Conclusion: The use of the leaf and root extracts of  Rauwolfia vomitoria is safe to the liver, kidney and brain when used at low doses over a long time but harmful when used at high doses over a short time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Study of Prostate Specific Antigen, Alkaline Phosphatase and Vitamin B12 in Prostate Cancer

Rashmi V. Bhivapure, Shubhangi M. Dalvi, Neelam Yeram, Vinayak W. Patil, L. G. Abichandani

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42394

Objective: This study aimed to find the relative risks of prostate cancer incidence associated with screening by serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and vitamin B12 levels.

Methods: Serum samples of 488 subjects above 40 years without treatment or puncture/rectal examination were screened for PSA levels using Chemiluminescence. Prostate cancer cases and control groups were analysed for vitamin B12 using Chemiluminescence and alkaline phosphatase using fully automated chemistry analyser. The relation of ALP and Vitamin B12 to levels of PSA in prostate cancer was examined.

Results: Incidence rate for the screening on the risk of prostate cancer by PSA levels and metastasis involvement was significant. Out of 488 screened subjects, 347 were within normal range according to age reference values, 30 were showing prostate cancer, and 111 were with the high risk of metastasis. Results of the case-control analysis showed a positive correlation among ALP and PSA levels and negative with vitamin B12.

Conclusions: Benefits of PSA screening varies with age group according to blood PSA levels. For men with a PSA level in different age groups screening and treatment depends upon individual decision, pain and clinical examination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical Characteristics of Activated Biochar Derived from Different Sources

Kanku Deka, B. K. Medhi, G. G. Kandali, K. Pathak, R. Das, D. C. Nath, P. P. Hazarika

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42571

An experiment was carried out to study the characteristics of biochar made from rice husk, rice straw, Toria stover and bamboo leaves. Biochar was produced by slow pyrolysis system (300 – 4000C). Locally available bio-wastes viz. rice husk, rice straw, toria stover and bamboo leaves were used as raw materials to produce chars. Two samples of feedstock each from 5 development blocks of Jorhat district of Assam were collected, dried and pyrolysed for production of char for their physicochemical properties. Per cent moisture and ash content, bulk density, particle density and porosity of biochars ranged from 3.26 to 4.91%, 3.70 to 24.97%, 0.178 to 0.729 g/cm3, 0.85 to 2.02 g/cm3 and 61.54 to 78.90%, respectively. Pore volume, particle size and specific surface area ranged from 0.83 to 1.15 ml, 310×147 to 350×209 μm2 and 89.40 to 184.75 m2/g, whereas pH ,EC, CEC, total Carbon varied from 7.74 to 9.46, 0.272 to 1.005 dsm-1, 12.74 to16.68 c mol (p+)/kg and 36.63 to 49.424%, respectively. Porosity maintained significant and positive correlation with pore volume (0.715**) and specific surface area (0.614**). CEC had significant positive correlations with total C (0.583**), total N (0.587**), total K (0.443**) and IAN (0.766**).Percent total N, P, K, and S had their value ranged from 47.27 to 60.07, 0.017 to 0.032, 0.237 to 0.453 and 0.083 to 0.099; while, Ca and Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Iodine adsorption number ranged from 1.11 to 5.23 and 0.148 to 1.326 c mol (p+)/kg, 16.65 to 2.91, 30 to 162, 8.6 to 43 mg/kg and 186.64 to 489.77 mg/g of biochar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Sesame Seed Enrichment on Physico-Chemical and Nutritional Characteristics of Flour from Two Cultivars of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir)

Bamigboye, Adeola Yewande, Adepoju, Oladejo Thomas, Adegboyega, Adenike Madinat

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/42377

The effects of enriching two cultivars of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) flour with sesame seed (Sesamum indicum L) flour on their physicochemical and nutritional characteristics were studied. Yam flours were produced from Abuja and Efuru yams by parboiling at 60°C for 10 minutes and left overnight, followed by sun drying for four days. Enriched yam flour samples were prepared by thoroughly mixing the yam and sesame seed flour in ratios 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 respectively. Proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient content, as well as functional properties of enriched flours, were determined using standard methods of AOAC. The two yam-flour samples were low in moisture, crude protein, fat and ash content, high in carbohydrate and macro minerals, while Sesame seed was very low in moisture and carbohydrate, but very high in crude protein, fat, ash and macro minerals. The moisture, crude protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate content of the yams and enriched samples ranged between 11.9-13.8 g, 3.3-7.5 g, 0.5-13.8 g, 2.0-2.6_g and 63.3-81.8_g/100 g respectively. Addition of sesame seed flour resulted in the reduction of moisture and carbohydrate content and significant increase (p=0.05) in protein, fat and ash values of enriched samples. The protein, fat and mineral content of the enriched samples increased with increased level of sesame seed flour inclusion (p=0.05). Both yam and sesame flours were low in the antinutritional factors studied. Sesame flour was high in trypsin inhibitors and polyphenols. Enrichment with sesame flour resulted in further reduction in the antinutritional factors content with increase in trypsin inhibitors and polyphenols content of the products. Efuru variety flour with its enriched products had higher water and oil absorption capacity, loose and packed bulk density and swelling capacity than Abuja variety flour. Enriching yam flour with sesame flour can improve the nutrients and functional properties of their products which can improve the nutritional status, health and well-being of consumers.