Open Access Original Research Article

Nephroprotective and Antihyperlipedemic Activity of Honey in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats

Onyebuchi Obia, Juliet E. Odum, Arthur N. Chuemere

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41585

There is increasing evidence to support the health benefits of natural honey. However, its use in the dietary management of diabetes mellitus is still evolving. The present study was aimed at investigating the long-term effects of Nigerian honey of Niger Delta origin on alloxan induced renal and serum lipid dysfunctions in diabetic wistar rats. Four groups of adult male wistar rats were used; 8 rats each.  The first group received no honey but were given saline and served as normal control. Group II were non-diabetic and received honey solution (50% v/v) at a dose of 10ml/kg body weight/day. Diabetes was induced in groups III and IV by intra-peritoneal administration of 200mg/kg alloxan solution. Group III served as diabetic control. Group IV received a honey solution. At the end of 56 days, lipid profile and renal function were assessed. Also, atherogenic index was calculated. Results obtained revealed alloxan induced diabetic renal dysfunction, as reflected by up-regulated kidney function parameters–urea, creatinine, and a decrease in sodium, and bicarbonate, levels while a non-significant difference between potassium in diabetic control and diabetic treated. Regarding serum lipid, there was up-regulated total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein, atherogenic index and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. Therefore, oral administration of honey diminished the deleterious effects of alloxan-induced diabetes on renal function and improved lipid profile parameters. We conclude that Niger Delta honey has the potential medicinal properties to protect against alloxan induced renal dysfunction and hyperlipedemia in diabetic male wistar rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nutritional and Phytochemical Composition of Vitellaria paradoxa (Shea Fruit Pulp)

O. A. Akoma, N. Y. Nma, S. A. Musa, A. B. Salihu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41714

The nutritional and phytochemical compositions of the Shea fruits (Vitellaria paradoxa) were investigated using standard methods. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. The proximate analysis revealed that the percentage composition of the fruit was as follows:- moisture (75.4), ash (11.6), crude fat (10.6), crude protein (4.4), crude fibre (9.1), carbohydrate (17.8) and energy value (385.2 kcal/g). The mineral composition (%) of the dried Shea fruit pulp as evaluated in this study consisted of K (1.97), Na (0.47), Ca (5.50), Mg (1.75), P (1.24); Zn (1.81) and Fe (3.01). The results obtained in this study further reiterate the reason why there is high consumption of Shea fruits by farmers in West and Central Africa for both its nutritional and medicinal benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nondestructive Analysis of Litchi Fruit Quality Using FT-NIR Spectroscopy

N. Sreedhar Reddy, B. K. Yadav

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41703

A non-destructive optical method based on near-infrared spectroscopy has been used for the evaluation of litchi fruit quality. Diffuse reflectance measurements (12500–3600 cm-1), physical, and biochemical measurements were performed individually on 100 litchi fruits of cv. Shahi cultivar harvested at different ripening stages. Relationships between spectral wavelengths and quality attributes were evaluated by application of chemometric techniques based on partial least squares (PLS) regression. The fruit set was divided into two groups: 60 fruits for calibration and 39 for validation. Good prediction performance was obtained for pH, soluble solids, and titratable acidity with correlation coefficients of 0.96, 0.91 and 0.94 respectively and root mean square errors of prediction of 0.009, 0.291ºBrix and 0.011% malic acid respectively. For the other quality traits such as vitamin C and color the prediction models were not satisfactorily accurate due to the high error of calibration and prediction.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tropical Leafy Vegetables as Valuable Sources of Carotenoids and Phenolics

Lessoy Zoué, Patricia Oulai, Armel Zoro, Sébastien Niamké

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41570

Leafy vegetables play an important role as essential components of diet for rural populations in tropical Africa. This study was undertaken to provide a more comprehensive characterization of carotenoids and phenolics in these neglected plant foods. For this, 12 leafy vegetables widely consumed in Côte d’Ivoire were selected, washed and oven-dried (50°C/3 days) before High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of carotenoids and phenolics compounds. Carotenoids contents were significantly different (p ˂ 0.05) with lutein (43.68 ± 4.89 – 513.91 ± 5.68 μg/g dw) and all trans-β-carotene (22.62 ± 1.54 – 222.61 ± 5.63 μg/g dw) as major constituents. The calculated retinol activity equivalent (RAE) of β-carotene-rich leafy vegetables in this study ranged between 1.54 and 2.52 mg/100 g. The values of total phenolics ranged from 179.66 ± 11.33 mg/100 g dw in Corchorus olitorius to 436.48 ± 1.73 mg/100g dw in Abelmoschus esculentus. Three (3) flavonoids: quercetin (0.79 – 8.36 μg/g dw), catechin (0.39 – 5.65 μg/g dw) and kaempferol (0.76 – 29.11 μg/g dw) were quantified in the selected leafy vegetables. Chlorogenic acid (0.94 – 17.01 μg/g dw) was the most quantified phenolic acid in the leaves. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the leaves showed that 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ranged between 19.63 and 65% with Solanum melongena showing the highest value (65%). For 2,2’-Azino-Bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) or ABTS scavenging activity, Myrianthus arboreus recorded the highest value (76.66%) compared to other leaves. All these results suggest that the studied leafy vegetables are potential sources of carotenoids and phenolics and their consumption in sufficient amount may contribute to human health improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Quality Analysis of Cucumber Grown Under Polyhouse and in Open Condition

Twarita Das, Luchon Saikia, Vikash Kumar

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41592

Cucumber is one of the important cucurbitaceous vegetable grown in Assam and its neighbouring states. Although a large number of F1 varieties are available in the market, their comparative quality assessment has not been made for their suitability to be grown under polyhouse. So, the present experiment involves cultivation of six different F1 hybrids namely Malini, Don, NS 404, Noori, Alisha and Sedona under polyhouse and in open condition having a wide variation in terms of quality characters. During the experiment, various quality parameters or characters were investigated for each of the genotypes.  All the genotypes had a wide range of variation for most of the characters under investigation. The highest moisture content per fruit under polyhouse condition was observed in genotype Malini (96.75%) while in open condition Noori recorded the highest moisture content. Highly significant differences were also observed with respect to ascorbic acid, TSS, reducing sugar and non reducing sugar for the conditions of cultivation. The highest TSS content (4.06 ºB), highest total sugar 3.46% and reducing sugar 0.58 % was observed in Malini under polyhouse. However, Sedona was found to have highest maximum TSS content (4.22 ºB), total sugar 3.51% and reducing sugar 0.61% in open condition. The ascorbic acid content (6.38 and 6.25) and SOD activity (28.47 and 26.94) expressed as mg 100 g-1 and μ mg-1 protein were observed highest in Alisha under both polyhouse and in open condition, respectively. The result revealed that cucumber cultivated under polyhouse condition significantly differ in various quality aspects than the ones cultivated in open condition and are found to be superior in terms of quality. Thus we may say that growing environment is an important factor that could reflect on the quality characters of the cucumber.