Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Pretreatment with Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vitex doniana on Cadmium-Induced Toxicity to Rats

Simon G. Mafulul, Enoch B. Joel, Larry A. Barde, Nankang G. Lepzem

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41684

Aim: To determine the effect of pretreatment with aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana on the cytotoxic response of the antioxidant defence systems in the liver and kidneys of rats exposed to a mild dose of cadmium.

Materials and Methods: Sixteen Male Wistar strain rats (180-220 g b.wt) were divided into four groups: Group A served as the control and rats were exposed to and maintained on a normal rat diet and tap water throughout study. Group B was maintained on a normal rat diet and then exposed to a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water for five days. Groups C were pretreated with 200 mg/kg Vitex doniana leaf extract for fifteen days and after that received a single daily oral dose of cadmium (3 mg CdCl2/kg) in drinking water for five days. Group D was exposed to only 200 mg/kg Vitex doniana leaf extract for fifteen days. At the end of the experiment membrane lipid peroxidation, glutathione contents and activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and cadmium content were determined in the liver and kidney samples.

Results: The results showed that pretreatment with aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana  effectively countered Cd-induced membrane lipid peroxidation, depletion of the non-enzymic antioxidants, glutathione, and induction of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase in the liver and kidney as well as effectively reduced cadmium accumulation in the liver and kidney and cadmium-induced liver tissue cell injury. The protective effect of aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana against Cd-induced lipid peroxidation and tissue glutathione depletion was more pronounced in the kidney than in the liver.

Conclusion: The aqueous leaf extract of Vitex doniana significantly reversed Cd-induced deleterious alterations in the liver and kidney tissue of the rats. The active antioxidant principle was not determined but is presumed to be polyphenols.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cadmium-Induced Testicular Damage in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Anthocyanins

Osuvwe Clement Orororo, Samuel Ogheneovo Asagba, Nyerhovwo J. Tonukari, Ogheneovo Joy Okandeji, Joseph Johnbusco Mbanugo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41796

Background: The search for potential ameliorators of Cd-toxicity is still on due to the many toxic effects of Cd including testicular damage.

Purpose: Thus the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L anthocyanins (HSA) on cadmium-induced testicular damage in wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty four adult male wistar rats (185±5.2g) were randomly divided into four groups and where treated for 15 days: A: control, B: Cd alone, 3 mg/kg b wt, C: HSA alone, 3 mg/kg b wt, Group 4: HSA Pre-CD: HSA (3g/ kg b wt for ten consecutive days) and Cd (3 mg/ kg b wt) for five days.

Results: Exposure to Cd caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in weight of testes compared to rats in the control group and those maintained on HSA alone. Exposure to Cd also caused significant reduction in activities of CAT and SOD and in the level of GSH in the testes accompanying increase in lipid peroxidation. However, pre-treatment of Cd-exposed rats with HSA resulted in amelioration of Cd-induced reduction in testicular weight, the activities of SOD and CAT and the level of GSH in rat testes. Administration of HSA also reduced Cd-induced testicular lipid peroxidation and could be attributed to the antioxidant properties of HSA.

Conclusion: This study confirms the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity of Cd and the potentials of HSA in protecting tissues against Cd-induced damage and implicates HSA in the reported antioxidant properties of various H. sabdariffa extracts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Silver Nanoparticles in Extracts of Acorus calamus and Agaricus bisporus

Sakshi Pipriya, Namrata Kundu, Udita Tiwari

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41615

Nanoparticles are in increasing commercial demand due to their wide applicability in various areas such as catalysis, chemistry, energy and medicine. Green chemistry is the best option to opt for the synthesis of nanoparticles.

Agaricus bisporus and Acorus calamus are used medicinally in Ayurvedic medicines. The present work conducted endeavored to determine antioxidant activity of the extracts made. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using an aqueous extract of Acorus calamus & Agaricus bisporus. They were characterized by using UV spectrophotometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

Plant extracts were incubated with Silver Nitrate Solution (AgNO3) and the color change was observed as dark reddish brown. The presence of Ag nanoparticles was analyzed between the wavelengths 400-550 nm. SEM & TEM determined the size of the nanoparticles determined by SEM & TEM. The antioxidant activity was performed by DPPH (1, 1diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging method for different solvents of Acorus calamus and Agaricus bisporus which showed that methanol extract on higher concentration possesses better antioxidant potential when compared to standard. They exhibited strong DPPH free radical scavenging activity with 66.3% and 59.2% respectively for ascorbic acid equivalence. The absorbance for reducing power was found to be in increasing order with an increase in concentration.

Methanolic extract displayed an increased antioxidant activity extract, could be due to the presence of flavonoids and phenols. Also, the study reveals that the silver nanoparticles from methanol extract show better activity than the normal aqueous extract.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relation of Vitamin D Status and Presence of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients

Sandeep Kumar Sharma, Ramesh Chandra Thanna

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41909

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is consists of a variety of heart disease, illnesses and events that impact the heart & circulatory system, including high blood pressure & coronary artery disease (CAD). Vitamin D is one of the fat soluble vitamins also known as sunshine Vitamin due to its synthesis in the body following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) B rays. The aim of the study is to find the status of Vitamin D & there relation to Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Materials and Methods: The present study included 50 cases of diagnosed acute coronary artery disease patients aged between 20 to 60 years and 50 apparently healthy controls and TMT negative matched for age and sex. Serum vitamin D was the measurement by ELISA method.

Study Design: Prospective Observational Study.

Results: The present study showed that significantly decreased levels of serum vitamin D (p<0.001) in acute coronary syndrome patients as compared with healthy controls.

Conclusion: Decreased levels of vitamin D are a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome, and also novel marker of CHD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prolonged Effect of Niger Delta Honey on Blood Glucose and Haematological Parameters in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

Asuquo E. Asuquo, Onyebuchi Obia, Arthur N. Chuemere

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41584

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic condition that develops when the body fails to produce enough insulin or when insulin fails to work properly, is a global health problem. This study was conducted to evaluate the metabolic effect of eight-week administration of Niger Delta honey on the blood glucose, haematological parameters, body weight and glycosylated haemoglobin in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Six groups of 8 rats each were used. Group I served as control; Group II was given 10ml/kg/day of the honey solution; Group III served as diabetic control; Group IV diabetic rats received 10ml/kg/day of the honey solution. Group V diabetic rats were given a single daily dose of 0.6 mg/kg glibenclamide. Group VI were treated with both glibenclamide and honey concurrently. The present study showed that honey significantly (p<0.05) improved blood cells and indices, body weight but caused marked decrease in blood glucose levels as well as glycosylated haemoglobin in alloxan diabetic rats. Furthermore, honey caused a further reduction in blood glucose levels when used in combination with glibenclamide. In conclusion, the result of the present study suggests that honey might prevent alloxan-induced anaemia, immune-disturbances, thrombocytopenia, weight loss and hyperglycaemia. These effects are probably due to its additive mechanisms on the haematopoietic systems and on glucose metabolism. Therefore honey might be a cost-effective aspect of dietary management of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Additionally, honey and glibenclamide combined may offer additional beneficial effects in alloxan – induced diabetes by synergic mechanisms on glucose metabolism and by further improvement in the vascular integrity.