Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Profile and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Methanol Extract of Green Pea

Nweze Chibuzo Carole, Rasaq Nurudeen Olajide, Sani Hassan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/39855

The legume, Green pea (Pisum sativum) is usually consumed as a vegetable. Phytochemical screening of its methanol extract showed that it contains terpenoids, resins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, saponins, phenols and flavonoids. Quantitative phytochemical estimation in (20/mg) revealed that it contains Saponins 13.4±0.11, Flavonoids 10.4±0.089, Phenols 9.8±0.063 and steroids 7.2±0.075. DPPH radical scavenging activities of methanol extract of green pea was expressed as the percentage inhibition of DPPH at varying concentrations of the extract. It was found to be proportional to the concentration of the plant extract; at 5 mg/ml (57.1%), 2 mg/ml (41.7%), 1 mg/ml (31%), 0.5 mg/ml (26.4%), 0.1 mg/ml (21.3%), and 0.05 mg/ml (16.9%). Thus, Pisum sativum, is a herb with some nutritional and pharmacologically important secondary metabolites with potent antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipidemic and growth enhancement effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relative Organ Weights and Histological Changes in Wistar Rats Treated with a South East Nigerian Polyherbal Formulation (Ajumbise)

Solomon N. Ijioma, Eme E. Osim, Azubuike A. Nwankwo, Okechukwu C. Nwosu, Chidozie B. Umezurike, Nnaemeka I. Nwawuba

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/37304

Background and Aim: Ajumbise is a polyherbal formulation used in Southeast Nigeria for enhancing labour, facilitating the expulsion of retained placenta, relieving menstrual and post-delivery pains and promoting involution of the uterus. In this study, the effect of the Polyherbal formulation on body weights, relative organ weights and liver and kidney histology was evaluated.

Methods: Forty rats were divided into four groups of ten rats each and were assigned daily oral administration of the extract for 28 days. While group 1 served as the control, groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered increasing doses of the extract. At the end of treatment organs were collected for histological analysis respectively. Students’s t-test at 95% level of significance was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Acute toxicity study result indicated zero mortality in all groups within the 24 hours of thestudy, even at a dose of 6000 mg/kg body weight. Body weight gain was significantly lowered in all treatment groups when compared with the control group (P<0.05). Relative liver weight did not significantly differ from that of the control except for the 800 mg/kg treated group where significant elevation was observed (P< 0.05). Relative kidney weights was significantly elevated in groups treated with 200 and 400 mg/kg (P<0.05). No significant histological changes were observed between treatment groups and control except for 800 mg/kg treated group where some inflammatory cells were observed masking the features of the portal triad. The arrangement of the hepatocytes, architecture of the portal triad comprising of the bile duct, hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery and central vein were essentially normal and had neither congestions nor necrosis. Histological presentations of the kidneys in all groups were normal and did not significantly differ from control.

Conclusion: We therefore conclude that Ajumbise polyherbal may be safe at low to moderate doses and at such doses does not pose any threat to the liver and kidney cells.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Response of Antioxidant Enzymes and Photosynthesis Dynamics of Sunflower Exposed to Aniline Wastewater

Tao Jing, Hui- Cheng Xie, Meng Chen

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/40506

Aims: In order to investigate the tolerance of sunflower to aniline, we measured the photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and antioxidant enzyme activities of sunflower in aniline wastewater.

Study Design: The experiment was conducted with oil sunflower No. 4 (Helianthus annuus Linn) as the experimental material. After five weeks of culture in half strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution, seedlings with uniform growth status were selected for aniline stress treatment. The concentrations of aniline stress treatment were 0, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160 and 180 mg/L, respectively. Each treatment has five replicates. Leaf photosynthetic parameters were measured at fifth and tenth day after treatment under natural environmental conditions.

Place and Duration of Study: Place for the study was located at Shandong Agricultural University, Taian city, Shandong, China. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks.

Results: Five days after stress treatment, the net photosynthesis rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), and transpiration rate (Tr) of sunflower showed an upward trend at the lower concentration of aniline (≦100 mg/L) and turned to a downward trend at higher concentration of aniline (≥120 mg/L). However, ten days after stress treatment, Pn, Gs and Tr of sunflower of all concentrations decreased significantly (P=.05) as compared to the control. The photochemical quenching coefficient and effective quantum yield of PS II photochemistry decreased. At the end of the ten days experiment, with the increase of aniline concentration, the photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of sunflower showed a downward trend except for intercellular CO2 concentration. The data indicated that nonstomatal limitation was responsible for the reduction of Pn. When the aniline concentration reached 180 mg/L, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) reached the highest point, which was 3.49 times and 1.78 times higher than those of the control.

Conclusion: The low concentration of aniline (<120 mg/L) could promote the normal growth of sunflower in a short time. However, when the stress duration reaches a certain level, aniline will have a significant toxic effect on sunflower, thereby severely affecting the normal growth of sunflower.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hepatic Lipase Influences Plasma Lipid Profiles and Lipoprotein Ratios in Regional Hospital Patients with Ischemic Stroke

Momoh Johnson Oshiobugie, Osuntoki Akinniyi Adediran, Ebuehi Osaretin Albert Taiwo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/35257

Background: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and disability in developed Countries. Ischemic stroke is the most common, with an estimated incidence of approximately 80%.

Studies have shown that dyslipidemia, including high levels of plasma or serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) and low levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor for the progression of atherosclerosis and the development of cardiovascular disease. Attempts are being made to include the use of lipoprotein ratios to optimize the predictive capacity of lipid profile in risk evaluation.

Objective: The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of hepatic lipase activity on lipid profiles and lipoprotein ratios in ischemic stroke patients.

Methodology: Two hundred healthy and ischemic stroke subjects were recruited in the study after obtaining informed written consent. They were divided into six groups considering age classes. Group 1-3 were control subjects (n=100) and 4-6 were ischemic stroke subjects (n=100). Weight, height, hepatic lipase activity and plasma lipid profiles were measured and lipoprotein ratios calculated using Excel software. Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad prism computer software version 5.00 and SPSS version 22 software programme.

Results: Hepatic lipase activity in the stroke subjects was significantly (P<0.0001) lower than control subjects (P=0.0001, 20.21 ± 0.3706 µmol/h/ml vs 30.50 ± 0.3928 µmol/h/ml). The stroke subjects had significantly (P<0.05) higher SBP, DBP and BMI compared to the control. Abnormal plasma lipid parameters were obtained in the stroke subjects compared to the control subjects. The stroke subjects had significant (P<0.0001) elevated TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C, Non- HDL-C, CRI-I, CRI-II, AC, TG/HDL-C and AIP as well as lower HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C.  LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (0R=490488439.6, 95% CI=0.078 - 3.102E+18 P=0.000) is the major risk factor for the development of ischemic stroke.

Conclusion: Hepatic lipase activities were lower while higher BP, BMI and dyslipidemia were obtained in the ischemic stroke subjects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Toxicity Study of Aqueous Leaves Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia from Nigerian in Albino Rats: Serum Biochemistry and Histopathological Evaluation

S. T. Magili, I. B. Bwatanglang

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/41307

Confounding factors such as plant species, its location and other environmental associated chemistry were reported to influence the dynamics of phytochemicals from being beneficial health-wise to metabolites that facilitate toxic induced effects. This study investigated the oral sub-acute toxicity profile of the aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) of Jatropha gossypiifolia collected from Mubi, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Generalized loss of body weight, weaknesses, dizziness, loss of appetite and restlessness were observed in the acute toxicity study with more severe effects and mortality recorded in the groups exposed to higher doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. In the sub-acute toxicity study, the ALE following the oral administration of 240 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 583 mg/kg for 28 days was observed to profoundly alter the normal architecture of the liver and the kidney. The pathological lesions were observed to have disrupted the normal concentration of the serum biomarkers. The ALT concentrations were found to increases to 10.28±1.26 U/L at 250 mg/kg, 9.38±0.57 U/L at 450 mg/kg and 9.31±0.77 U/L at 583 mg/kg respectively when compared to the control (5.86±0.34 U/L). The concentrations of AST were observed to increase to 49.07±16.2 U/L at 250 mg/kg, 47.10±15.42 U/L at 450 mg/kg and 53.07±10.32 U/L at 583 mg/kg respectively when compared to the control (46.11±9.21 U/L). The activity levels of ALP further shows an increase of 379.50±11.31 U/L at 250 mg/kg, 624.90±22.46 U/L at 450 mg/kg and 662.73±28.62 U/L at 583 mg/kg respectively when compared to the control (349.97±71.70 U/L). It is evident from this study that the ALE of the J. gossypiifolia species in addition to its health benefits also contains a cocktail of toxic phytochemicals. Thereby redefined the previous conclusions that the aqueous leaf extract of J. gossypiifolia plant is entirely safe. Thus, reinforcing the importance of the uses of indigenous/site-specific experiment, having in mind that some phytochemicals are sensitive to numbers of confounding factors.