Open Access Original Research Article

Biochemical, Nutritional and End Use Perspectives of Wheat Grass as Potential Dietary Supplement

Imran Pasha, Nuzhat Huma, Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai, Samra Jan, Shabbir Ahmad, Muhammad Sajid Manzoor, Farah Ahmed

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/39539

Wheat grass being substantial cereal grass crop in the world; copious source of nutrients with noteworthy nutritional and therapeutic value. The research, wheat grass was grown in indoor trays and then used as powder and in drink. The objective were to use the wheat grass to formulate a suitable processing procedure for wheat grass powder (WGP) enriched food products. Both raw WGP and cookies were analyzed for total dietary fiber (TDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF), insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Drink was analyzed for pH, viscosity and total soluble solids (TSS). WGP addition showed a significant effect on mixographic (peak height and peak time) and farinographic studies; water absorption, arrival time, dough development time (DDT) and mixing tolerance index (MTI). The cookies prepared using different levels were generally accepted by sensory panelists of the department but 3% substitution level of WGP have high acceptability. Moreover, on the basis of physicochemical and sensory attributes, 10% supplementation level of wheat grass in drink was best making it a nutrient enriched food source.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gene Expressions and Polymorphisms of Novel Biomarkers in Diabetic Nephropathy

Suvarna Sanas, Yadav KS

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/39263

Introduction: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and of type 2 diabetes is extremely pronounced in Asian countries, particularly in India. In 2015, over 0.9 million deaths in India were attributed to diabetes directly or indirectly and approximately 60-70% suffering from renal diseases.

Materials and Methods: This study conducted at School of Medicine, D Y Patil University, Navi Mumbai included 241 type II diabetic patients with diabetic duration 3-5 years, between age 30-70 years. Blood samples were processed for renal parameters and RT-PCR to check the expressions and polymorphisms of IL-6, IL-10, CD 36 and LDLr.

Results: Gene analysis of IL10, CD 36 and LDLr showed that IL10, it is expressed and seen mutation at 56 A mutated to T. In CD 36 expressions were seen and amplified region showed mutation at 67 T to C (heterozygous). In LDLr both expressions and mutations of base pairs seen in higher amounts and amplified region showed mutation at 329 C to CC; 350 A to G; 352 A to G; 353 A to G; 355 A to T; 356 G to T; 358 GG to T (deletion of one nucleotide) and 563 G to T.

Conclusion: Relationship between T2DM microalbumin and lipid parameters were not decisive and may be superseded by gene expressions and polymorphisms of IL10, CD 36, and LDLr. Early measurement of polymorphisms and expressions may prevent morbidity and mortality after therapeutic intervention and lifestyle modification. Association of cytokines may help in the development of novel biomarkers to identify individuals at risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Nephroprotective Effects of Vernonia amygdalina in Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Rats

Adegbolagun T. Adeoye, Ademola A. Oyagbemi, Temidayo O. Omobowale, Aduragbenro D. Adedapo, Abiodun E. Ayodele, Momoh A. Yakubu, Adeolu A. Adedapo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/40100

Background: Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure worldwide. Purpose: The methanol leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina (MLVA) was thus investigated for its nephroprotective effects in diabetes.

Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by a single intraperitoneal (I.P) injection of a freshly prepared solution of Alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg). Forty-eight hours after alloxan administration, rats with fasting blood glucose levels of 200 mg/dl and above were used for the study. Animals were grouped into five (A-E) of nine animals each. Group A was non-diabetic non treated control; Group B animals were the diabetic untreated control rats while groups C, D and E animals were diabetic and treated with glibenclamide, MLVA 200 mg/kg and MVLA 400 mg/kg respectively. Biochemical changes were evaluated by measuring the serum markers of kidney damage (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen). Markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant activities were measured in renal tissues. Histopathological and immunohistochemical changes were also evaluated.

Results: Four-week administration of MLVA produced significant (p<0.05) decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and oxidative markers but it caused a significant increase in enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant as well as downregulation of Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and upregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2).

Conclusion: MLVA ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

In vitro Antiplasmodial and Toxicity Activities of Crude Extracts and Compounds from Euclea latideus (Ebenaceae)

Kodi Philip, Mwangi M. Elizabeth, Peter K. Cheplogoi, Moses K. Langat, M. Akala Hoseah

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-22
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/39603

Aims: In our search for new antiplasmodial agents, in vitro antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts and isolated pure compounds were determined. In addition to the in vitro assays, in vivo acute toxicity of the crude extracts was investigated to assess the safety of the plants. Furthermore, structure elucidation of the pure compounds was also carried out to determine the identity of the isolated compounds.

Study Design:  Extraction of the root crude extracts of Euclea latideus was done using four solvents: hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Isolation and purification were carried out on only the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate crude extracts.

Methodology: Four solvent; hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol were used to carry out the extraction process of the crude samples. Isolation and purification of crude extracts were achieved using chromatographic techniques which included column and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The characterization of the isolated compounds was determined using NMR spectroscopic techniques. 

In vitro antiplasmodial activity was performed on two strains of Plasmodium falciparum (chloroquine [CQ]-sensitive 3D7 and CQ-resistant Dd2 strains) using a non-radioactive fluorescence-based SYBR Green 1 assay technique. Lorke's method of acute toxicity was used to determine the in vivo acute toxicity of the crude extracts in mice.

Results: Results of acute toxicity studies showed that all crude extracts of E. latideus had LD50 > 5000 mg/kg and therefore regarded as a non-toxic plant. The four crude extracts of E. latideus had good activity

With range of (IC50) 3D7: (9.75-38.21) µg/mL and Dd2: (2.78-38.93) µg/mL. The resistance indices for E. latideus crude extracts ranged between 0.10- 1.43, suggesting that some of the extracts had equal promise against the CQ resistant strain of P. falciparum. Isolation resulted in the identification of three known compounds which include; three triterpenoids Lupeol (EL1), betulin (EL2), 3β-(5-hydroxyferuloyl)lup-20(30)-ene (EL3 ). Among the pure compounds EL2 had the highest activity against on both strains (IC50) 3D7: 1.64 ± 0.02 µg/mL and Dd2: 7.69 ± 1.21 µg/mL while Lupeol (EL1) displayed moderate activity with (IC50) 3D7: 23.91 ± 0.05 µg/mL, Dd2: 25.14 ± 0.01 µg/mL. The antiplasmodial activity of the crude extracts and pure compounds were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the reference standards (chloroquine diphosphate and mefloquine hydrochloride). Both the crude extracts IC50 (2.78-38.93) µg/mL and pure compounds IC50 (1.64-25.14) µg/mL showed a significant decrease in activity compared to the reference standards (0.0056-0.0440) µg/mL. Significant difference (P < 0.05) also existed between the antiplasmodial activities of the crude extracts, which showed the same trend with that of the pure compounds.

Conclusion:  The results show that the root crude extracts and pure compounds of the plant have good antiplasmodial activity and low toxicity which can be exploited for malaria therapy. Therefore, this justifies their ethnomedicinal use of the plant by the local communities of Butebo Sub-County, in Pallisa District in Eastern Uganda in the treatment of malaria.  

Open Access Original Research Article

Possible Biochemical Abnormalities of Plasma Lipids and Apo-lipoprotein in Diabetes mellitus Patients with or without Retinopathy In Saki- West Local Government Area of Oyo State- Nigeria

Mathew Folaranmi Olaniyan, Olayiwola Akanji Popoola, Oluwabusayo Priscilla Olasupo, Temitayo Afolabi, Shedrack Gbenga Olayinka

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2018/38873

Study Background: Possible metabolic disorders of lipid, carbohydrate and protein are associated with Diabetes mellitus which may include complications such as retinopathy considering the pathophysiology of this metabolic disease.

Aims and Objectives: This work was designed to determine apolipoproteins (ApoA, ApoB), Total cholesterol (TC), Total Triglyceride (TG), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), Very Low-density Lipoprotein (VLDL), High-density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) in Diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy.

Materials and Methods: 261 subjects were recruited for this study from the Medical outpatient and ophthalmology clinic of Baptist Medical Center Saki-Nigeria. The subjects were classified into; Non- Diabetes mellitus without retinopathy Control subjects (n=100: Female-50; Male-50), Diabetes mellitus patients without retinopathy (n=100: Female-50; Male-50) and Diabetes mellitus with retinopathy (n=61: Female-22; Male-39) aged 50 to 76 years. The Body mass index (BMI) of the subjects ranged between 18.2 – 19.6 Kg/m2. Plasma Total cholesterol (TC), Total Triglyceride (TG), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), Very Low density Lipoprotein (VLDL), High-density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) were determined biochemically using chemistry auto-analyser – COBAS C111 while ELISA technique determined apolipoproteins (ApoA, ApoB).

Results: The result obtained showed a significantly higher mean plasma value of Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL, TG and Apo B/Apo A1 in a patient with Diabetes mellitus without Retinopathy than the control non-diabetic subjects without retinopathy with p<0.05. There was a significantly higher plasma value of  Fasting Plasma Glucose, Total cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL, TG Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1and a significantly lower plasma value of Apo A1 in patients with Diabetes mellitus and Retinopathy when compared to the control non-diabetic subjects without retinopathy with p<0.05. There was also a significantly higher mean plasma value of Fasting Plasma Glucose, LDL-C, TG, Total cholesterol, and Apo B/Apo A1 in Diabetes mellitus patients with Retinopathy than the Diabetes mellitus without Retinopathy with p<0.05.

Conclusion: This work has been used to reveal a significant association between increased  plasma  Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-C, VLDL, ApoB and ApoB/ApoA ratio and decreased plasma ApoA in Diabetes mellitus patients with or without retinopathy which  was found to be more intense in those patients with retinopathy.