Open Access Short Research Article

Evaluation of High Levels of Triglycerides in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

D. Santha Rao, V. Praveena, Bhukya Veeranna

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33499

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is starting as accumulation of fat in the hepatocytes (steatosis) which is a sub-clinical condition in those who are not consuming alcohol. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a condition of steatosis, associated with inflammation of liver cell.  This is a clinical form of NAFLD, which is regarded as a major cause of cirrhosis of the liver [1]. This distinction between simple steatosis and NASH is important because the natural history of these categories differs substantially. Patients with simple steatosis usually have a benign prognosis from the point of view of liver disease [2-5]. In contrast, up to 20% of patients with NASH may ultimately develop advanced liver disease [2,4-6]. The prognosis of NASH-related cirrhosis is poor: It results in liver failure or liver-related death in approximately one third of cases [7,8]. Hepatocellular cancer is also a recently recognized complication of NASH-related cirrhosis [7,9].

Open Access Original Research Article

Mango (Mangifera indica L) Seed Kernel: Proximate Properties and Effect on Normal and Monosodium Glutamate-Hepato-Compromised Wistar Rats

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Okechukwu C. Atasie, Christian C. Ezeala, Gift E. Ejike

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/38639

Monosodium glutamate, MSG, a widely used flavour enhancer could induce hepatic injury in humans while mango (Mangifera indica L) seed kernel, MSK, a common fruit waste could be nutritive and therapeutic. Thus, this study investigated the proximate properties of MSK and the effect of MSK on normal and monosodium glutamate-hepato-compromised Wistar rats using standard protocols involving five groups (n=4) viz: control (distilled water, 2 ml/kg ), MSG (8 g/kg), MSK ethanolic extract, MSKE (0.3 g/kg), MSG (8g/kg) + MSKE (0.2 g/kg) and MSG (8 g/kg)  + MSKE (0.4 g/kg) respectively fed via gavage daily for 14 days. Proximate content of MSK revealed total carbohydrate (71.99%), moisture (10.53%), crude protein (5.68%), ash (4.31%), fat (4.29%), and crude fiber (3.20%). The determined serum bio-indicators of hepatic function (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity and total bilirubin concentration) in the rats exposed to MSG alone which were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control were reduced (p<0.05) dose dependently following concomitant exposure of the rats to MSG and increasing concentration of MSKE. Multifocal necrosis with periportal infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory leucocytes in the liver histology of MSG-treated rats contrasted the normal hepatic histo-architecture in the control and MSKE-treated rats. The study highlighted the dietary potential of MSK and confirmed a definite MSG-induced adverse effect on the liver histology and serum functional indices of rats, probably ameliorated on concomitant exposure with MSKE. Further studies to exploit MSK in diets and drugs could reduce its waste status hence were warranted.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Soil Enzymes, Microbial Biomass Carbon and Microbial Population under Okra Cultivation

Vikash Kumar, Jumi Saikia, Nishant Barik, Twarita Das

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/38868

A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Department of Horticulture, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat during March to July 2016 to study the “Effect of integrated nutrient management on soil enzymes, microbial biomass carbon and microbial population under okra cultivation”. The results of the study indicated that there was the improvement in soil biological properties and soil enzymes in all plots over the initial value. However, the highest biological properties like Microbial Biomass Carbon (MBC) (244.86 µg g-1), bacterial population (8.24 log cfu g-1 soil), fungal population (3.89 log cfu g-1 soil), soil enzymes like fluorescein di-acetate (FDA)  (7.28 µg fluorescein g-1 soil h-1), phosphomonoesterase (PME) (50.15 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1), Deydrogenase (DH) (136.90 µg TPF g-1 soil 24 h-1), Arylsulphatase (14.16 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1) and  Arylesterase activity (113.92 µg p-nitrophenol g-1 h-1) was found in the treatment T3 [at 50% recommended dose of N, P, K + Vermicompost at the rate of 2 t ha-1 (mixed with microbial consortium)]. Increased in microbial population and soil enzymatic activity is the indicator of good soil condition for crop growth. Therefore the addition of organic manure and biofertilizers along with the reduced amount of inorganic fertilizers should be advocated for maintaining high soil quality for longer the period.

Open Access Original Research Article

Generation and Analysis of Biogas from Some Animal and Vegetable Wastes

E. A. S. Osibote, B. O. Odesanya, G. S. Soetan

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/38656

The world relies heavily on fossil fuels for both domestic and commercial energy needs but there is an environmental effect of these fossil fuels and as the energy consumption is becoming very significant as there is depletion of the fossil fuels. Research has to be in the development of alternative energy sources. One of the alternative sources of energy is bio-energy. The common fuels obtainable from biomass are bio-ethanol and biogas. This study aims at the production of biogas from biologically degradable wastes by co-digestion system and analyzing the percentage composition of CH4 and CO2 in biogas produced. It involves using fruit (peels and seeds of orange, tomato, cucumber) and vegetable (efo shoko-leafy vegetable) wastes mixed with pig manure in an anaerobic digester. Thus giving an alternative energy source and making the environment cleaner by reducing the green energy gases and wastes. The gas content, therefore, is analysed. The composition of CO2 and CH4 content in biogas generated were CO2 28.1% and CH4 68.9%.

Phytochemical screening, proximate analysis of the fruit waste, vegetable waste and the pig waste were carried out. The proximate analyses were carried out for carbohydrates using Anthrone method, Total Lipids Using Bligh & Dyer Method; Crude Fibre, moisture content, total ash, and crude protein method as described by AOAC (1995); The high content of the methane obtained is a high indication that the waste materials used are a good source of biogas generation and can be used to provide a cleaner environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Analgesic Activity of the Aqueous and Hydroethanolic Extract from Crinum scillifolium Bulbs (Amaryllidaceae)

Koua Kadio Brou Donald, Effo Kouakou Etienne, Kouakou Sylvain Landry, Droucoula Guillaume Cyril, Yapi Houphouet Felix

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/39418

Aims: Crinum scillifolium is a plant in the family Amaryllidaceae. The present study aimed to evaluate a possible analgesic activity of an aqueous and hydroethanolic extract of Crinum scillifolium bulbs.

Study Design: This is an experimental study involving the extraction of the bioactive agents from Crinum scillifolium bulbs using water and hydroethanolic solution and the evaluation of the analgesic activity. 

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out in Laboratory of Biochemical pharmacodynamics and laboratory of clinical and therapeutic pharmacology, University Felix Houphouet Boigny between September and October 2017.

Methodology: For this purpose, two methods were used for the evaluation of the analgesic activity. The acetic acid-induced writhing test was used for peripheral analgesic activity and tail immersion for central analgesic activity. Swiss albino mice were used as an animal model. Extracts were administered orally at 100 and 200 mg/kg.

Results: The extracts and aspirin (150 mg/kg) produced a significant (P ≤ 0.001) inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing test. The hydroethanolic extract produced significant dose-dependent (P≤ .001) reduction the number of writhes with peak effect (91.16 % inhibition) produced at the highest dose of 200 mg/kg. This effect was comparable with that produced by aspirin (86.61 % inhibition). The aqueous extract at a dose range of 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively decreased abdominal writhing induced by the acetic acid at a rate of 59.83 % and 58.83 %. For the evaluation of central analgesic activity, the administration of both extracts increased tail stretch reflex time but the results were not statistically significant compared to the control.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that Crinum scillifolium bulbs possess peripheral analgesic properties, supporting the traditional use of those plants in pain.