Open Access Opinion Article

Molecular Mechanism of Metformin in DM2- A New Hypothesis

A. S. V. Prasad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/39028

Metformin, the antihyperglycaemic drug, though in use since 1957 eluded as to its mechanism of action till date. There is some truth but not the whole truth, in even the much-favoured mechanisms of AMP-stimulated protein kinase (AMPK) stimulation and inhibition of complex 1 of  Electron  Transport  Chain (ETC), as there are objections, unresolved, as yet. Subsequent innovative mechanisms,  like gut- mediated responses-involving glucagon-like peptide  (GLP 1) and sodium-glucose transporter protein (SGLT 1) or signalling pathways involving transcription factors like a mammalian target of repamycine  (mTOR C2), sirtuin  1 (SIRT 1) etc., and the recently proposed brain-gut- liver axis fared no better. The obvious truth to be accepted is that probably no single mechanism can explain all the observed phenomena. An attempt is made to rope in all mechanisms into one, invoking the glucagon signalling pathway, by a non-AMPK, non-Complex1 inhibitory mechanism by the proposed hypothesis. To this extent, new concepts like gate control concept and Warburg- like effect in diabetes mellitus type2 (DM2) are proposed. It is conceptualised that deranged glycolysis is at the root cause of the disturbed energy metabolism in DM 2 and the answer to restore the same lies in a reversal of the factors that lead to derailed glycolysis. Besides, a brief recapitulation of what is known is attempted, with emphasis on the bottlenecks of each of these mechanisms.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Traditional and Improved Cassava Processing on Cassava Derivative Products in Central African Republic

L. Aba Toumnou, Kosh-Komba Ephrem, Olivia Semboli, G. I. Touckia, Nguerepande Odilon, Konguere Ernest, S. Semballa, R. Ndjouenkeu

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37522

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy staple food that previous researches have showed to contain cyanogenic compounds, precursors of hydrocyanic acid, undoubtedly toxic for humans. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of traditional and improved cassava processing in Cassava derived products. Data were analysed by unpaired student’s t-test at a confidence level of 95% (p<0.05). Carbohydrate, lipids, cyanogenic compounds and Humidity profile proved that there is variability between the measured parameters according to the traditional and improved cassava processing (p< 0, 0001). 

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Plant Extracts for Textile Applications

Shameembanu A. Byadgi, Sadhana D. Kulloli, C. K. Venugopal

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37135

Aims: To carry out the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening and assess the antimicrobial activity of banyan (Ficus benghalensis), castor (Ricinus communis) and clerodendron (Clerodendron inerme) leaf extracts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Textile and Apparel Designing, College of Community Science, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, between July 2014 and June 2017.

Methodology: Extraction of phytochemicals was carried out by different solvents viz., 70% ethanol, 70% methanol and distilled water. The phytochemical screening was carried out for the presence of various bio-active constituents according to standard procedures. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent assay method. Antimicrobial activity of crude extracts of plants was assessed by agar well diffusion method.

Results: The qualitative screening revealed the presence of constituents such as flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenols and saponins in all the leaf extracts. However, terpenoids were absent in banyan leaf extracts. Irrespective of solvents, castor extracts yielded higher total phenols followed by banyan and clerodendron extracts. Further, the antibacterial activity of the crude ethanol extract of castor against bacterial species viz., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and fungal strain, Aspergillus niger showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to banyan and clerodendron extracts.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that the results has provided the basis for use of banyan, castor and clerodendron extracts as potential agents for applying antimicrobial finish to textiles. Hence, there is a need to explore the applicability of these plant resources which are rich in phytochemicals/phenolics and may have beneficial effects on health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enalapril Confers Protective Effect on Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats through Downregulation of Cardiac Troponin, C-reactive Protein, Upregulation of IL-10β as Well as Anti-Oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities

B. O. Adeoye, T. O. Ajibade, E. R. Asenuga, O. A. Adejumobi, A. A. Oyagbemi, T. O. Omobowale, A. A. Adedapo

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/38498

Myocardial infarction is an irreversible death of heart muscle secondary due to prolonged lack of oxygen supply. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of enalapril in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats using changes in haemodynamic, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemistry parameters. Twenty-one male Wistar rats divided into three groups were used where the control (group A) was administered for normal saline which continued for 7 days, group B animals received normal saline for 7 days and thereafter isoproterenol (ISO) at 85 mg/kg on day 8 and 9. Group C animals were pretreated with enalapril (10 mg/kg) for 7 days and thereafter received ISO on day 8 and 9. On day 10, the blood pressure change in the animals were measured and thereafter sacrificed by cervical dislocation. The heart of each rat was removed, homogenized and used to assay for some oxidative stress markers and some antioxidant parameters. In this study, ISO caused myocardial infarction as seen by significant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure but was corrected by enalapril. Enalapril caused significant increase in the levels of SOD, GPx, GST and GSH but significant decrease in MDA content and H2O2 generation. But reverse was the case for group B animals. Immunohistochemistry showed that ISO caused higher expressions of cardiac C-reactive protein (CRP) and cardiac troponins 1 (CTn1) and decrease in IL-10β but vice-versa for enalapril. No histopathological changes were recorded for enalapril. The study thus showed that enalapril significantly exhibits cardioprotective effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Aqueous Extracts on Haematological Parameters of Cockerels Experimentally Infected with Infectious Bursal Disease Virus

S. Garba, U. M. Mera, U. Musa, K. I. Onifade, M. S. Jibrin, P. C. Mshelia, U. G. Rambo, H. U. Mungadi, Z. Shehu, U. S. Ahmad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37712

The study aimed to identify the effects of aqueous extract of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on some haematological parameters of cockerels vaccinated and infected with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Four hundred and eighty (480) day old cockerels were purchased for the study and allocated to 8 groups. The birds were grouped as vaccinated/ unvaccinated, challenged/ unchallenged and neem leaf treated/ untreated groups. The IBD vaccines (intermediate plus strain) were given at 14 and 28 days of age while the experimental infection using very virulent IBD virus (vvIBDV) was inoculated at 35 days of age and the extracts were given from day old to 6 weeks old. Blood samples were collected at 1-week post each IBD vaccination, and vvIBD virus challenge for haematology and the results were analysed and recorded. The results obtained showed heterophilia and lymphopenia in the vaccinated groups while very virulent IBDV strain results in panleucopenia, lymphopenia and heterophilia. However, increased lymphocytes and total white blood cell counts (TWBC) was observed following Neem leaf aqueous extracts administration with resultant decrease in heterophils. These results indicates that neem leaf aqueous extracts enhanced the immune status of the birds by increasing the TWBC and lymphocyte counts.