Open Access Original Research Article

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption in Reproductive Functions of Adult Wistar Rats

P. R. C. Esegbue, A. A. Aigbiremolen, R. A. Akindele, O. D. Ehiwe, O. M. Odigie, A. O. Naiho, J. C. Igweh

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/30912

Coffee from Coffea arabica is a popular beverage consumed worldwide. Its effect on health has been a global puzzle. In this study, the effect of coffee and caffeine consumption on some reproductive structures and functions of Wistar rats were investigated. A hundred and seventy-five (175) Wistar rats bred in the Animal house of the Faculty of Basic Medical Science of Delta State University were used for this study. All experimental rats were treated for four (4) weeks. Group 1, control, received food and water only, groups 2, 3 and 4 received 40 mg/kg, 60 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg, doses of Coffee respectively while Groups 5, 6 and 7 received 30 mg/kg, 45 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg doses of Caffeine respectively. After administration of test substances, animals were sacrificed accordingly with serum samples collected. While testes, hypothalamus and hippocampus were harvested for histological studies, serum samples were analysed for specific parameters. In Unit two (2) Seventy-five (75) rats of both sexes were mated and treated in varying mating and treatment groups accordingly until after gestation. Then, the weight, litter size, survival rate and gestation length were measured. Both Caffeine and Coffee treatments showed a dose-dependent effect on most parameters measured. Coffee was found to increase antioxidant enzymes, decrease liver enzymes and also negatively affected reproductive outcome. All comparisons were done at (P≤0.05), using 1-tailed ANOVA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Levels of Heavy Metals in Selected Canned Lager and Native Beer (Burukutu) Sold in Kugiya Market, Jos – Nigeria

Samuel Y. Gazuwa, Jonathan D. Dabak, Segun A. Olomu, Binta H. Abdullahi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37950

Aim: To determine the levels of Cd, Zn, Pb and Fe in some branded canned lager beers and burukutu (native beer) samples. To compare the prevalence of these metals in the two types of beers in order to proffer recommendations about the contamination of liquor with the metals.

Study Design: The work was descriptive.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos; National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Zaria (Nigeria) from 10th March-10th April, 2017.

Methodology: 10 samples of burukutu were obtained from different sellers within Kugiya market Jos South Local Government Area, Nigeria. 10 samples each, of branded canned lager beers were purchased from the market and they included A®, B®, C®, and D®. To analyse the samples for the metals, atomic absorption spectrophotometry was applied.

Results: Mean concentrations (mg/litre), of Cd, Fe, Pb (in branded beers) and Zn ranged from: 0.011 to 0.037±.54; 0.404 to 1.645±.24; 0.120 to 0.215±.75 and 0.017 to 0.088±.76 respectively. Compared to the respective standard reference values for drinking water for each metal, the levels in the branded canned lager beers samples were all higher (p=.05). In the case of burukutu, mean levels of Cd, Fe and Zn were also higher (P=.05) relative standard reference value. Contamination with the metals was higher in branded canned lager beers (pH 5.3) than in burukutu (pH 3.2) which should be contaminated more because it is more acidic. Cd and Pb are implicated in cancers, brain damage, Fe predisposes to haemochromatosis; alcohol causes hepatitis, liver cirrhosis.

Conclusion: Based on these findings, drinkers of branded canned lager beers are more at risk of exposure to the combined toxicities of alcohol and the metals than drinkers of burukutu. Since both types of drinks are routinely consumed, better quality vessels, especially cans, should be used to check leaching of metals from wall of containers into the liquor. This will guarantee safer alcoholic beverages and hence the health of drinkers. P=.05 was considered significant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of the Phytochemical, Proximate and Mineral Constituents of Breynia nivosa Leaf

O. R. Ezeigbo, I. Nwachukwu, C. A. Ike- Amadi, J. B. Suleiman

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37965

Medicinal plants have played a key role in the world health care with about 80% of Africans depending on phytomedicine which has shown a wide range of uses in treatment of diseases. The usage of plants, plant extracts or plant derived pure chemicals to treat diseases in Nigeria has become a therapeutic modality which has stood the test of time. Breynia nivosa which is a shrub seen around the neighbourhood has been reported to be effective in treating headache, toothaches and inflammatory diseases. The extracts are natural analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents and could have therapeutic potentials in management of various chronic diseases. This study evaluated the ethnomedicinal uses of Breynia nivosa by determining the phytochemical, proximate and mineral composition of the plant which could contribute to its effectiveness in the treatment of diseases. The leaf of the plant was evaluated using standard methods. The result showed reasonable quantities of important chemicals such as alkaloid (3.29 ± 0.01), flavonoid (1.51 ± 0.00), oxalate (0.24± 0.02), saponin (0.79 ± 0.00) and cyanogenic glycosides (5.34 ± 0.02). The proximate values obtained include moisture content (9.31 ± 0.01), dry matter (90.65 ± 0.10), ash content (13.46 ± 0.01), crude protein (16.84 ± 0.00), and carbohydrates (47.79 ± 0.01) while the mineral content include calcium (28.42 ± 1.01), magnesium (12.52 ± 0.03) and sodium (13.68 ± 0.03). From the above result, the use of the plant for effective treatment of diseases should not be in question, since it contains appreciable phytochemicals and mineral constituents. It is therefore recommended for use in the formulation of drugs for treatments of diseases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gamma Glutamyl Transferase- A Link between Oxidative Stress and Periodontitis in Smokeless Tobacco Users and Non Users with Chronic Periodontitis

Sabiha Ilyas Patel, Varsha Jadhav, Prashanth Shetty, Pavan Deshpande, Nitin Gorwade, Nitika Shinde

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37348

Introduction: Long-term usage of tobacco related products are the potential generators of free radicals which alter the cellular antioxidant defense system. Changing the balance towards an increase in the pro-oxidants over the capacity of the antioxidants is defined as oxidative stress (OS), which leads to oxidative damage. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase/transferase (GGT), a liver function marker plays a key role in regulating cellular levels of the antioxidant molecule glutathione, hence is a critical enzyme in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis.

Aim: To investigate and compare the level of GGT in smokeless tobacco users (STU) and non tobacco users (NTU) with chronic periodontitis (CP).

Materials and Methods: The study comprises of 50 subjects with the age group 20-64 years categorized as smokeless STU with CP (n=25) and non tobacco users NTU with CP (n=25). 2 ml of blood from antecubital vein and 2 ml of unstimulated saliva was obtained and evaluated for GGT. Clinical parameters such as Plaque index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Pocket probing depth (PD), Clinical attachment levels (CAL) were recorded. The statistical analysis was carried out using Chi-square test / Fisher’s exact probability test for the inter-group comparison of categorical variable. The statistical significance of inter-group difference in the continuous variables is tested using independent sample t test after confirming the underlying normality assumption.

Results: Within the reference range, level of GGT was significantly higher in STU with CP than NTU with CP.

Conclusion: Estimation of GGT levels being an easy, reliable and inexpensive test, can become an emerging tool for the diagnostic assessment of periodontal disease for early detection of OS suggesting its high scope to be recognized as a biomarker for OS damage and thereby establishing both oral and systemic health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Systemic Effects of Nigerian Bituminous Coal Fly Ash in Albino Rats: Serum Biochemistry and Histopathological Evaluation

I. B. Bwatanglang, S. H. Garba, I. D. Lynna, D. Y. Shinggu, T. S. Magili, Y. Musa

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/38602

In this study, the in vivo toxicity index of Nigerian bituminous coal fly ash prepared under a burning temperature of 900ºC was evaluated following oral administration to Albino rats. The effect of the sample prepared at this temperature was compared under various dose (100, 200 and 500 mg/kg body weight) concentrations and systematically relate the effect on the serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO-3) activity levels, the liver enzymes (ASAT, ALAT, SAP), Total bilirubin (TB), Total protein (TP) and Albumin (ALB) respectively. From the results, the fly ash was observed to induced significant alteration in the TB, TP and ALB concentrations in both study periods, with no apparent disturbances recorded in the liver enzymes and serum electrolyte concentrations when compared to the control. Furthermore, the fly ash was observed to profoundly induce pathological lesion in the lungs and the intestine, with mild histological changes observed in the liver and spleen. While, no significant changes observed in the kidney in the primary study, the fly ash in the secondary study was observed to induce tubular degeneration in the kidney. The results further showed that, the Nigerian bituminous coal fly ash, irrespective of the treatment groups demonstrated a time-dependent effects histologically and in serum biochemistry profiles. Thus, further confirmed that, the reactivity of the coal fly ash, though independent of the sampling dose might be attributed to the organic and inorganic constituents in the fly ash interacting with the rat’s normal metabolic pathways, initiating and triggering toxic-induced effects histological and physiologically. The results further provide us with additional information on the in vivo effects and susceptibility of Nigerian bituminous coal fly ash and the need to explore same for energy generation under control and regulated combustion processes.