Open Access Original Research Article

Non-targeted Metabolomic Profiling of Maize Landraces (Zea mays L.) Combined with Chemometric Tools

Virgílio Gavicho Uarrota, Miguel Rocha, Marcelo Maraschin

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35832

Grain samples of maize landraces were collected and subjected to Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis combined with chemometric tools in other to discriminate them regarding the chemical composition. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering (HCA) were applied on selected peaks of the spectral data. The most important chemical groups found in all maize landrace samples were monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, tetraterpenes, aminoacids, polysaccharides, lipids and proteins. Trace signals of secondary metabolites were also found in cultivars according to year of harvest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alterations in the Bio-membrane of Libyodrilus violaceus following Exposure to Crude Oil and Its Fractions

G. O. Erifeta, G. E. Eriyamremu, K. Omage, H. K. Njoya

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37256

We investigated changes in the lipid profile of clitellum and post-clitellum sections of earthworms (Libyodrilus violaceus) after exposure to different doses of crude oil (Bonny light blend) or its fractions for two-weeks. Two hundred and forty earthworms were assigned to four major groups of sixty earthworms each; one group was given deionized water and served as the control group and the other test groups were either exposed to whole crude (WC) or its water soluble fraction (WSF), or water insoluble fraction (WIF). Twenty animals in each test group were exposed to 0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% contamination. The treated groups revealed a significant reduction (P<0.05), (1.71% - 28.29%) in the weight of earthworms when compared with those in the control group. Generally, the exposure of the earthworms to either whole crude oil or its fractions resulted in a dose dependent significant (P<0.05) reduction in the total lipid and total phospholipid content of both sections (clitellum and post clitellum) of the worms studied. We observed that the exposure of earthworms to crude oil or its fractions decreased phosphatidyl ethanolamine (PE), and phosphatidyl choline (PC) at different doses when compared with concentrations in control animals. There was also an increase in sphingomyelin levels in both the clitellum and post-clitellum sections of worms in the treatment groups at the different doses. These changes significantly affected the SGM/PC ratios. These changes in the phospholipid profile may have profound significance in the tolerance of earthworms to the toxicants in crude oil or its fractions. Physical and ionic characterization of the crude oil sample revealed that it contained unsafe levels of cadmium(7.50mg/l, 0.97mg/l, 11.54mg/l for WSF,WIF and WC respectively) and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.2926mg/l, 5.5871mg/l, 36.3665 mg/l for WSF, WIF and WC respectively).

Open Access Original Research Article

Disulphide Bond Reduction of RNase A by Drug Metosartan a Comparative Study

Eswari Beeram, Kamala Katepogu, Bukke Suman, Divya Bysani, Thyagaraju Kedam

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37444

RNase A is the most experimental protein in the 20th century. Disulphide bonds are necessary for enzymatic action of many proteins as it is also required for this protein. RNaseA kinetic studies is performed with the drug metosartan using RNA as the substrate Metosartan, is a drug used as  blocker in excretion and found to contain inhibitory property on RNaseA. Protein degradation and thiol titration assay has found to be that the drug has reducing property on RNaseA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Antinutrient Composition of Some Local Food Condiments in Their Raw and Fermented Forms

M. N. Ndukwe, M. D. Solomon

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37727

Aim: The aim of this study was to survey the proximate and anti-nutrient components of some local food condiments and their seeds.

Study Design: Ability to compare the nutrient and anti-nutrient components in some local food condiments after processing. Five (5) samples in their raw and fermented forms were used for the study. The samples are Parkia biglobosa, oil bean seed, Sorel been seed, soybean and African locust bean.

Study Area: Department of Biochemistry, University of Jos, Nigeria and National Veterinary Research Institute (NVRI), Vom, Plateau State. The study was carried out between March, 2016 to October, 2016.

Methodology: Analysis on the proximate and anti-nutrient parameters was conducted using methods described by AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemicals).

Results: The results show that fermented Oil bean seed (Ugba) had the highest moisture content and crude fibre (46.16±0.58) and (27.63±0.35) respectively while fermented Parkia biglobosa (Okpehe) had the highest content of crude protein (54.50±0.06). Fermented sorel bean seed (dawadawa botso) had the highest content of crude fat, Ash, Calcium and phosphorus (46.83±0.03), (7.69±0.04), (0.87±0.35) and (0.33±0.15) respectively while raw soybean dawadawa had the highest content of nitrogen free extract (NFE) (24.26±0.30).

Raw Parkia biglobosa (Okpehe) had the highest content of tannin (10.45±0.52) while raw African locust bean dawadawa had the highest content of the anti-nutrients; oxalate and phytic acid (164.99±0.06 and 44.51±0.06) respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fermentation improved the proximate components of these local food condiments and also significantly (P<0.05) reduced their anti-nutritional concentration

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Properties of Custard Apple

Sagar Kachhadiya, K. R. Jethva

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36626

Custard apple is a climacteric fruit with less storage life as compared to other fruits. Custard apple contain anti-oxidants like Vitamin-C and good source of potassium, magnesium, Vitamin-A.  For development of processing technology (preparation of custard apple pulp and other value-added products) and equipment some basic data of physical and chemical properties are necessary. Hence, physico-chemical properties play important role in design or development of pre and post-harvest equipment and value added product. The observations on tree for percentage increase in dimensions of fruits (Horizontal and vertical diameter) on tree was more rapidly in early stage of fruit setting (0 to 25 days). After 25 days of fruit setting, the percentage increase in dimensions of fruit was increased gradually (30-40 days) and at the time of harvesting of fruit the percentage change in dimensions was negligible or became constant (45-55 days). The average weight, geometric mean diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, surface area, volume, hardness for ripe and unripe fruits were 103.04 g, 57.63 mm, 60.52 mm, 0.88, 10579.27 mm2, 118.38 cm3, 1.27 kgf; 143.57 g, 62.39 mm, 65.60 mm, 0.85, 12283.54 mm2, 144.09 cm3, 3.66 kgf, respectively. The pulp content, seeded pulp content, seed content, peel content for ripe and unripe fruits were 35.08%, 47.63%, 11.38%, 51.50%; 31.98%, 40.20%, 7.52%, 59.29% respectively. The average moisture content, pH, total soluble solids, acidity, reducing sugar, total sugar, ascorbic acid for ripe and unripe fruit pulps were 68.42%, 6.1, 30.7 °brix, 0.3%, 8.5 g/100 g, 15.6 g/100 g, 13.65 mg; 64.75%, 5.8, 37.7 °brix, 0.3%, 5 g/100 g, 12.07 g/100g, 12.35 mg, respectively.