Open Access Opinion Article
Hyperglycaemia in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU) with acute myocardial infarction is a common phenomena observed. This unique situation of cardiogenic insulin resistance does not spare diabetics or non -diabetics. It is in addition to the inherent insulin resistance that is a part of diabetes mellatus, type 2 (DM2). It is brought about by various cytokines released from the damaged heart muscle. This cardiogenic insulin resistance has cardiac as well as systemic effects. The grave and independent risk role in post myocardial infarction (MI) and the complications, of the cardiac insulin resistance are highlighted. The concerted action of cardiologist and endocrinologist while in hospital is called for, so as to cover the grey areas between the two specialities, which otherwise falls into no man’s island!. The systemic insulin resistance, once the patient is back in home setting, would test the patience of the physician, as usual doses of insulin just do not work! The article aims at creating awareness regarding concerted effects of all concerned to deliver holistic treatment to the patients.
Open Access Minireview Article
The tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum) is a crop rich in nutriments but is susceptible to infection such as mosaic caused by the Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV). In this review it will be described some mechanisms that L. esculentum have developed to overcome the infection amongst ToMV such as the Hypersensitive Response in which participate the resistance proteins Tm-1, Tm-2, and Tm-22, as well as the Antiviral RNA Silencing. Some insights for ToMV control are discussed.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: The aim of the study is to examine the acute phase reactants in the backdrop of insulin resistance represented by prediabetic and overt diabetic states.
Study Design: Cross sectional study
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was undertaken at Rajarajeswari Medical college and Hospital, Bengaluru for around six months between July 2013 and December 2013.
Methodology: The study consists of three groups. We incorporated the World health organisation criteria for the diagnosis of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Accordingly forty seven adults were included in the first prediabetic group, the second group comprised of thirty seven type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers constitued the third group. We intend to study High sensitive C reactive protein, serum albumin and serum uric acid levels, estimated by standard methods in the three groups.
Results: The Mean and standard deviation of HsCRP in prediabetic, T2DM and controls are 4.09±1.29, 3.38±1.41 and 1.68±0.51 mg//L respectively (p=0.030) in the present study. The serum albumin levels exhibit a statistically significant (p=0.001) downward trend from 4.67±0.49 g/dl in the healthy controls to 4.01±0.44 g/ dl in prediabetics and 3.96±0.55 g/dl in diabetics. We have not noticed any statistically significant difference in the levels of uric acid among the three groups.
Conclusion: The acute phase reactant profile corresponds to the inflammatory environment and worsens as the disease progresses, in a metabolic disorder like T2DM, which is apparently evident in our study.
Open Access Original Research Article
Background: Drying is a very important step in improving the quality of paddy rice.
Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effect of different drying areas on the quality of the Wita 9 paddy rice grain samples.
Materials and Methods: A survey was carried out on the drying areas used and the duration of the operation. In addition, laboratory analyzes of samples of Wita 9 paddy rice grains taken after drying were carried out.
Results: The results obtained revealed the use of three types of drying areas by the producers, namely bag-tarpaulins, black tarpaulins and cemented areas. Preferably, pouch sheets are used by 78% (Daloa), 62% (Issia) and 68% (Vavoua) by producers for drying paddy rice. Very few paddy producers surveyed do not reach the 7 days of drying as recommended. Analysis of variance showed significant differences (p <0.05) regardless of the biochemical parameter considered. These observed variations show that these different types of drying areas have a significant effect on the biochemical characteristics of paddy rice samples.
Conclusion: It should be noted that the moisture contents (11.93 ± 0.60 -15.09 ± 0.07%), ash (5.06 ± 0.02- 5.88 ± 0.12%), protein (2.82 ± 0.70 - 4.57 ± 0.12%), fat (1.80 ± 0.07 - 2.99 ± 0.54%), carbohydrate (74.17 ± 0 , 58 - 76.78 ± 0.84%) and energy (325.75 ± 1.41-344.61 ± 3.21 kcal / 100 g) vary according to the different types of drying areas.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the haematological, biochemical and kidney pathological changes in cachectic and non cachectic Zebu cattle in Nigeria.
Study Design: A total of 79 cattle were sampled during the study. The number of cachectic and non-cachectic animals varied depending on the parameters analyzed. It was strictly an abattoir-based study.
Place and Duration of the Experiment: Samples were collected at the Zaria abattoir in Nigeria for a period of 6 months and analyzed in the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.
Methodology: Body weight and generalized body condition of the animals were determined. Also, the effect of age and sex on cachexiation was investigated. Whole blood was collected via jugular venipuncture for determination of packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin, and total and differential leukocyte counts. Serum was processed from the whole blood to determine electrolyte profiles, alanine and aspartate amino transferases (ALT & AST). Urine composition and pathologic changes in the kidneys of cachectic and non cachectic animals were also determined.
Results: The non-cachectic cattle had higher PCV values compared to the cachectic animals, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mean PCVs of the 2 groups were within normal range. The non-cachectic cattle had slightly lower values of neutrophils compared to the cachectic group, although the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The cachectic group showed slightly higher (P>0.05) concentrations of creatinine and higher concentrations of urea (P>0.05) than the non-cachectic group and urinalysis revealed no aciduria, ketonuria or leucocyturia in both cachectic and non cachectic cattle. Similarly, cachectic cattle had increased alkaline phosphatase activity, ALT and AST compared to the non cachectic animals whose values of these enzymes did not vary significantly. Postmortem examination of the carcasses revealed smooth spherical greyish-brown coloured uroliths (stones) in the kidneys of 11 (15%) of the cachectic cattle. The uroliths weighed between 200-700 mg, with a diameter of 5-10 cm. Chemical examination of the uroliths indicated that they contained substances such as ammonium (+), carbonate (++), uric acid (+ and + +), phosphorus (++) and magnesium (+ and ++). Histopathologically, there was intra glomerular cellular infiltration (predominantly lymphocytes and macrophages) for both cachectic and non-cachectic cattle. The cachectic cattle also showed obliterated Bowman’s space and moderate congestion. Nephritis was also observed in the cachectic cattle.
Conclusion: This study is the first to report exhaustively the haematologic, biochemical and pathologic changes in the kidneys of cachectic Zebu cattle presented to the abattoir for slaughter. The study did not investigate the role of season on cachexiation and it is concluded that future studies should focus on the role of seasonal variation on cachexiation.