Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Evaluation of Nutritional Qualities of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens Seeds

M. Aliyu, M. K. Atiku, N. Abdullahi, A. Zaharaddeen, A. A. Imam

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36536

Aims: The study was aimed at evaluating the nutritional qualities of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens seeds.

Study Design: It was designed to determine the proximate and amino acids profiles of Nymphaea lotus and Nymphaea pubescens seeds to indicate their nutritional potentials.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano State-Nigeria, between August 2016 and January 2017.

Methodology: Fresh seeds were collected, dried and grounded to smaller particle size. Standard official methods were employed in the proximate analysis while amino acids analysis was carried out using Technicon Sequential Multisample Amino Acid Analyser.

Results: The result of the proximate composition revealed the richness of both seeds in carbohydrates, crude lipids and proteins. The amino acid analysis revealed that amino acids were more concentrated in Nympahaea lotus seed with the total value of 73.82 g/100 g than 70.70 g/100 g of Nymphaea pubescens seed. The former also exceeded the later in total essential amino acids by difference of 1.12 g/100 g. The highest scoring amino acid was arginine in Nymphaea lotus seed and leucine in Nymphaea pubescens seed while methionine was the most limiting amino acid in both the samples. All the essential amino acids in both samples satisfied WHO/ FAO reference protein except histidine, valine and methionine. The P-PER of Nymphaea lotus seed and Nymphaea pubescens seed were found to be 1.69 and 1.54 respectively, meaning Nymphaea pubescens seed may be slightly more bioavailable than the Nymphaea lotus seed. The Lys/Arg ratio of Nymphaea lotus seed (0.84) and Nymphaea pubescens seed (1.09) indicate their low arthrogenic potential.

Conclusion: These results re-enforce the growing awareness that wild and semi-wild plant seeds can contribute useful amounts of essential nutrients to human diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Utilization of Fish Feeds by Côte d’Ivoire Fish Farmers and Its Influence on the Quantitative Competitive Commercial Fish Production

R. A. Koumi, N. B. Kimou, I. N. Ouattara, C. B. Atsé, P. L. Kouamé

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36595

This study assesses the ability of fish feeds to produce competitive commercial fish in quantity. Three hundred and one (301) fish farms were surveyed in fifteen (15) regions of Côte d’Ivoire between May and November 2013. Fish feeds and farming systems were inventoried, characterized, ranked and sampled on each farm for biochemical analysis. Nine indicators of feeding, five indicators of aquaculture practices and four indicators of production were defined and evaluated. Results show that fish were fed with commercial feeds, feeds produced by fish farmers, agro-industrial byproducts and non conventional feeds. Intensive, semi-intensive, extensive and rice fish farming systems are the farming systems practiced. Use of commercial feeds involves the use of the quality feeds by almost 65.5% of farmers, practice of semi intensive system by 92.5% of farmers, regularly feeding with pellet feeds (72.5%) and respect of the feeding and aquaculture practices by the majority of farmers. Also, yields recorded were more than 1000 kg.ha-1year-1 and the tilapia commercial weight were more than 350 g for more than 50% of farmers. On the contrast, farm-made feeds, agro-industrial byproducts and non conventional feeds explain the long duration and the low weight of commercial tilapia production as well as the low yields of the majority of farms. Results express the need to improve the production process and the quality of farm-made and feed sellers feeds. Optimal feeding strategies and good aquaculture practices must be also followed to ensure quantitative competitive commercial fish production in Côte d’Ivoire.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serum Electrolytes in Cataract Patients with and without Diabetes Mellitus

Usha Sachidananda Adiga, Adline Harris

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36813

Introduction: Cataract is the most common cause of blindness which is treatable. Though there are multiple risk factors involved, exact pathogenesis of cataract is yet to be established.  Diabetics are known to be associated with electrolyte disturbances, like hypo/hypernatremia, hyperkalemia. We hypothesize that serum electrolytes may be altered in diabetic cataract patients. The aim of the study was to compare serum electrolytes in diabetic and non-diabetic cataract patients as well as to assess the correlation of duration of diabetes with electrolytes as well as risk of cataractogenesis in diabetics.

Methods: The cross sectional prospective study was conducted in Clinical Biochemistry, IGMCRI, Puducherry.  Blood samples of fifty each diabetic and non-diabetic cataract patients were analyzed   for electrolytes using Roche electrolyte analyzer which works on the principle of ISE. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21.Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was used to compare the means of electrolytes, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated to find the correlation between duration of diabetes and electrolytes. Odd’s ratio was calculated to study the association between electrolytes and the risk of cataractogenesis.

Results: We observed a significantly higher serum sodium (3.3%), potassium (10.2%) and chloride levels (2.8%) [(P<0.001), (P<0.05) and (P<0.01) respectively] in diabetic cataract patients as compared to non-diabetics. Elevation of sodium, potassium and chloride pose 3.45, 1.76, 1.36 times respectively higher risk of cataractogenesis in diabetics. Sodium and potassium levels were positively correlated with duration of diabetes (r= 0.452, p<0.01 and r= 0.349, P<0.05 respectively).

Conclusion: Alterations in electrolytes pose an added risk of cataract formation in diabetics in addition to hyperglycemia. Along with carbohydrate restricted diet, salt restriction may help in prolonging cataract formation as well as progression.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection of Phytotoxin Produced from Leaf, Neck and Finger Blast Disease Causing Magnaporthe grisea through GC-MS Analysis

S. Shanmugapackiam, S. Parthasarathy, T. Raguchander

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/33353

Finger millet blast is the most devastating disease affecting different aerial parts of the plant at all growth stages starting from seedling to grain formation. Magnaporthe grisea being a ubiquitous pathogen with many hosts, understand the basis for host pathogen interaction and role of toxins will be useful in development of resistant varieties and their screening procedures. In this study, the presence of toxic volatile compounds were detected  by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) in the culture filtrate of leaf blast, neck blast and finger blast pathogen at different bands indicating various retention factor (Rf). Likewise the several toxic compounds were detected from M. grisea through GC-MS analysis from the semi-purified crude toxin in vitro viz., 1-Hexadecene (CAS), 1-Octadecene (CAS), Quinic acid,  1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid- bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester (CAS) from leaf blast isolate, Hippocasine, Holothurinogenin-2, Neophytadiene, 1,2-Benzene-dicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (CAS), à-Patchoulene (CAS),  Synaptogenin B, 1-Naphthalenol, decahydro-1,4a-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethylidene),  Zingiberene (CAS) from neck blast isolate and 2H-Pyran-2-one, 6-hexyltetrahydro-delta-Hexylvalerolactone from finger blast isolate were detected.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Cardamine uliginosa Bieb. Growing Wild in Eastern Region of Turkey

Ömer Kılıç, Fethi Ahmet Özdemir

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/37184

Cardamine uliginosa Bieb. is a native plant belonging to Brassicaceae family which can used in ethnomedicine. This study was carried out to evaluate the essential oils composition of Cardamine uliginosa and its antibacterial activity. The plant sample was analyzed by GC/GC-MS system. Eventually twenty four components representing 91.2% of the total oil were identified. The obtained results proved the presence of twenty four components. The major component essential oil of this plant were identified as; limonene (32.6%), caryophyllene oxide (28.5%), b-caryophyllene (8.4%), p-cymene (3.4%), α-terpinolene (3.3%), β-pinene (2.4%), α-copaene (2.1%), α-longipinene (1.3%), d-cadinene (1.2%) and b-ocimene (1.0%) was determined. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was determined against sixteen bacterium isolates by measuring inhibition zones produced by the oil. The antibacterial activity of C. uliginosa essential oil was tested using the disc diffusion method wherein the essential oil has shown notably antibacterial effect with the inhibition zone in diameter from 2 mm (for Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50070) to 11 mm (for Bacillus subtilis IM 622), with the exception of Salmonella enterica ATCC 1331 and Salmonella typhimurium NRRLE 4413 where the oils haven’t shown antibacterial activity. Also weak inhibitory effect were observed against Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 50070 and Proteus vulgaris. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the tested Cardamine uliginosa essential oil, obtained from plant material from the eastern region of Turkey, display a significant phytomedical potential.