Open Access Original Research Article

Varietal Differences among the Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of White and Red Fleshed Guava during Maturation and Ripening Stages

Guopeng Li, Muhammad Azam, Lei Fang, Jihua Li, Muhammad Jafar Jaskani, Mumtaz Khan, Liaqat Ali, Tanveer Ahmad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36497

Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is an important commercial fruit in southern China. In this study, the antioxidant activity and total contents of phenolics and flavonoids of two guava cultivars that with different pulp color were examined. The contents of total phenolics and flavonoids increased during maturation in guava fruit. And red-flesh guava showed higher contents of total phenolics and flavonoids than white-flesh guava. Both DPPH and FRAP assays indicated that antioxidant activity increased during fruit maturation. Strong and positive correlations between total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity were observed in our study. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and contents of total phenolics and flavonoids in P. guajava vary significantly among different cultivar and pulp color.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus Stem Bark

Maryam U. Ahmed, Abdullahi A. Modibbo, Moses Z. Zaruwa, Ismaila Y. Sudi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36546

The use of plants for medicine is gaining more acceptability worldwide due to its availability, affordability, efficiency and considerable safety. This study sought to gather information on the phytochemical and nutrient composition of Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark. This will be a guide to the importance of the plant healthwise. Phytochemical, proximate, mineral and vitamin analysis was done using standard procedures. Alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids were present in both aqueous and ethanolic stem bark extracts of Pterocarpus erinaceus. Anthraquinone was present only in the ethanolic extract. Proximate analysis shows high carbohydrate and fibre content 39.33 ± 0.05% and 31.22 ± 0.32% respectively. The extract also contains 8.70 ± 1.10% protein and 0.45 ± 0.50% fat. Pterocarpus erinaceus stem bark is a rich source of vitamin A (75.87 ±0.12 IU/100 g) and B9 (71.25 ± 1.23 mcg/100 g). Heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Ni) were not detected in this study. Phosphorus and iron were detected in high amount. This therefore justifies the use of this plant for the treatment of diseases such as aneamia and diarrhea. Research should be carried out on this stem bark to explore more potentials of this plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Fermentation on Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Radical Scavenging Ability of Citrullus vulgaris

A. O. Ileola, T. R. Omodara

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/29804

Ogiri, a fermented product of melon seed (Citrullus vulgaris), is a fermented condiment rich in vitamins and protein commonly consumed in South-East and Western Nigeria. It was produced by  sorting the dehulled seed by hand to remove the spoilt seeds, washing, boiling for 4 h, aseptically pouring into the fermenting can and incubating at 35 °C for 120 h. The fermented and unfermented cotyledons were analyzed for physicochemical properties and vitamins. pH and total titrable acidity increased from 6.34 to 7.28 and 0.4 N to 0.23 N respectively. The moisture content increased from 7.78 % to 32.77 %. Both Citrullus vulgaris and Ogiri exhibited antioxidant efficacy. The vitamins and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)increased significantly which showed changes in the radical scavenging ability. Ogiri had improved nutritional composition, as a condiment, it is therefore recommended for consumption in preference of melon seed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Minerals and Vitamins Contents of Cakes Enriched with Almonds Powder of Terminalia catappa of Côte D’ivoire

Douati Togba Etienne, Mahan Makado Romuald, Konan N’Guessan Ysidor, Sidibe Daouda, Coulibaly Adama, Biego Godi Henri Marius

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36726

Aims: The aim of this study is to contribute to a better valorization of Terminalia catappa by the determination of minerals and vitamins of cakes enriched with the powders of almonds of Terminalia catappa, also evaluate the nutritional contributions of their consumption.

Study Design: Six cakes (five cakes enriched and one cake no enriched) were prepared, the nutrients of the cake formulations obtained using the composite central plane and a cake control was determined.

Place and Duration of Study: Laboratory of Biochemistry and Food Sciences, Biochemistry department of Biosciences Unit, Félix Houphouet-Boigny University, between October and December 2015.

Methodology: The analysis of the 6 cakes consisted of the determination of their minerals and vitamins contents. Also their estimated the Ivorian daily intake.

Results: Analysis of the essential minerals gave the contents between those of the control cake and the cake 4, which are the following:

Calcium (65.97 ± 0.01 - 76.58 ± 0.01 mg / 100g), sodium (40.00 ± 0.02 - 42 ± 0.01 mg / 100g) potassium (532.3 ± 0.10 - 616.2 ± 0.01 (mg / 100g), phosphorus (512.8 ± 0.10 - 548.1 ± 0.01 mg / 100g), magnesium (143.69 ± 0.01 - 156.93 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g), iron (4.22 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g and 4.7 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g), zinc (3.58 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g and 4,00 ± 0,02 mg/100 g, Manganese (5.10 ± 0.01 - 10.21 ± 0.02 mg / 100g), sulfur (45.8 ± 0.02 and 52.81 ± 0.2, 02 mg / 100 g) and copper (9.7 ± 0.01 14.21 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g) and Selenium(14,82±0.01 and 12.32±0.01µg/100g).

The vitamins contents were as follows: β-carotene (114.87 ± 0.24 - 237.2 ± 0.01 ER / 100 g), vitamin E (1.00 ± 0.01 - 1.07 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g), vitamin B1 (0.46 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g), B3 vitamins (7.25 ± 0.01 - 7.97 ± 0.01 mg / 100 G), vitamin B6 (0.38 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g), vitamin B9 (0.05 ± 0.01 mg / 100 g). The cake 4 records the highest levels of vitamins B3, E and β-carotene as those of the control cake.

One African adult consumes an average of 23 g of cake per day, representing 2.26% of the 1018.1 g of food consumed on average daily. The daily intake of essential minerals and vitamins of composite cakes contributes in the majority to more than 2 to 5 times that 2.26% of the recommended needs. Cake 4 containing the highest levels of these essential nutrients has the best contribution to recommended daily intakes.

Conclusion: The popularization of this cake (cake 4) could contribute to increase the consumption of almonds of Terminalia catappa, to combat malnutrition of the populations especially in children and to generate the sources of income important for the populations.

Open Access Review Article

Fortification of Dietary Fiber Ingriedents in Meat Application: A Review

S. A. Sofi, Jagmohan Singh, Shafiya Rafiq, Rafia Rashid

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36561

Meat and meat type products have high biological value with rich nutritional compounds such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and trace elements. Increased consumer’s demand for convenience and easily available foods such as meat products and their byproducts have the changed due to various socioeconomic factors in recent years. Processing technology in meat industry introduce various benefit compounds to meat and meat products which are essential to human health but in such foods fat and salt contents are high or above moderate level but lack in fiber content and cause a health threat that in some cases shows to be a alaraming signal to various diseases such as cardiovascular, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. Due to consciousness among present generation consumers related to nutritional disease shows towards functional foods. Therefore an increase in level of functional foods such as dietary fiber fortified foods in daily diet has been allotted and prescribed in daily diets. Dietary fiber of 28–36 g/day in adults has been recommended and must contain insoluble fiber of 70–80%. Dietary fiber whether insoluble or soluble type have different functions such as part of soluble type  dietary fiber helps in intestinal regulation whereas soluble type fiber helps in reducing cholesterol level and also absorbs intestinal glucose level which otherwise cause a healthy hazard threat. In meat products fiber from various related sources such as cereals, pseudocereals, fruits and vegetables would enhance their desirability and functional properties of meat products. In general agricultural byproducts and wastes are comparatively cheap source of dietary products and their incorporation at different levels in meat products reduces cost in economic terms.