The effects of two drying methods, (oven drying and sun drying) of tomatoes and storage conditions of the products were studied to assess their effects on chemical, nutritional quality and sensory properties. Eleven kilograms of Fresh tomatoes were obtained from Ankpa metropolis central market, Kogi state Nigeria. The fruits were washed, weighed, and divided into two equal parts (51/2 kg), one part was sliced into a non sticky pot, dehydrated, pressed through colander and re-dehydrated into a thick moulding consistency, it was sliced and oven dried at 60°C at a constant stirring using skewer. The second portion of the tomato fruits was blanched in 100°C hot water, sliced and sun dried. The Nutrient composition was determined using standard methods, the microbiological examinations were carried out using culture plate methods and sensory evaluation was evaluated using 9 points hedonic scales. Moisture contents in oven dried and sun dried tomato powders fluctuated between 8 – 10% and was slightly higher in the sun dried tomato product. The chemical analysis of four macronutrients (protein, fat, crude fibre and carbohydrates) were completed and the results were expressed as percentage dry matter. Significantly higher protein (3.70%), fat (0.82%) and crude fibre (6.37%) were found in the oven dried tomato product (P<0.05) compared with the respective values obtained in the sun dried tomato product and the carbohydrate contents was 77% in both. The chemical analysis of the five Phytochemicals; total flavonoid, tannins, Phenolic acid, and alkaloid were reported and their mean levels were significantly higher in the oven dried tomato compared with the values in sun dried tomato product. The microbiological examination showed that under storage conditions for 3 months, the total viable counts were of oven dried and sun dried (5.7x103cfu) and (7.7x105cfu) per gram of tomato, respectively. Under storage conditions for 6 months, the total viable counts increased slightly in the sun dried tomato product. Fungal growth was not visible in both tomato products after 3 months of storage. Yet, under storage conditions for 6 months, mean values were 1.9x103 and 2.1x105 colony forming units per g of oven dried and sun dried tomato, respectively. Sensory evaluation which included four parameters, i.e., revealed taste, flavour, consistency, colour beside overall acceptability were significantly superior (P<0.05) in the oven dried tomato product over the sun dried.
The influence of cooking and dietary palm oil on the nutrient and anti-nutrient contents of cocoyam was investigated. Cocoyam is ranked third in importance, and has been found to be nutritionally superior to cassava and yam due to its easily digestible starch and high protein, vitamins and mineral contents. There are heath concerns over the anti-nutritional contents of cocoyam which could lead to several ailments. The addition of palm oil, which contains healthy components, and cooking known to also reduce and inactivate some of these antinutrients would be carried out in this study. Four portions of healthy cocoyam were given different treatments and labeled A, B, C and D for uncooked raw (control 1), cooked without dietary palm oil (control 2), cooked with little dietary palm oil at ratio 1:5, cooked with much dietary palm oil at ratio 1:10 respectively. These portions were mashed for nutrient and anti-nutrient content analysis. The moisture contents of portion B was the highest (80.48%) compared to moisture content values recorded for other cocoyam portions. The ash content of the C portion was the highest (3.38%) followed by cocoyam portion D. Raw cocoyam had the highest carbohydrate (86.58%) and protein content (8.61%) while portion D had highest protein content amongst boiled cocoyam portions. The highest caloric value was recorded for the cocoyam portion D (444.75%). The raw portion had higher content values for all the anti-nutrients. Values recorded for anti-nutrient contents of the other cooked and cooked with oil additions cocoyam (B, C and D) portions were significantly reduced.
This study investigated the proximate composition and the hydrogen cyanide content of two different cassava species, bitter cassava and sweet cassava species (Manihot esculenta Crantz) harvested from Kachia Local Government Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The proximate composition analysis were determined using standard methods and the hydrogen cyanide content of the cassava samples were determined using fermentation and titration methods. The mean result of proximate analysis of both species showed that the fresh samples of sweet cassava variety had chloride content value of 0.0024±0.0002 mg/L, ash content: 0.87±0.44%, moisture content: 41.05±2.26%, dry matter: 58.9±0.14% and fat content: 0.57±0.42%. The bitter cassava variety had chloride content value of 0.0028±0.0000 mg/L, ash content: 0.94±0.06%, moisture content: 38.2±2.69%, dry matter: 61.7±2.69% and fat content: 0.49±0.42%. These values were within the Food and Agricultural Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) standards for proximate composition in cassava except for the high moisture content of both species which was above the permissible limit. The mean total HCN content in bitter cassava was 89.60 mg/Kg, while the sweet cassava had an HCN content value of 80.60 mg/Kg. The yeast fermentation procedures was employed and the mean extracted hydrogen cyanide content obtained was as follows: 69.33±2.80 HCN mg/Kg for the sweet cassava and 85.33±4.61 HCN mg/Kg content in the bitter cassava species; the remaining free HCN in both cassava varieties were within recommended consumption limit. The mineral concentration in both cassava varieties were however lower than the recommended mineral values as stated by United States Department of Agriculture USDA, 2016.
The present study was conducted to understand the biochemical changes in rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes viz., heat tolerant (N22), moderately heat susceptible (IR8) and fine grain rice variety (PR116) in response to different transplanting time. Constitutive level of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) was found to be significantly higher in N22 than in IR8 at very early (D1) and early transplanting (D2) times. Heat stress caused a significant increase in the level of the phenolics constituents. Total free amino acid were significantly higher in N22 than in PR116 and IR8. Total sugars and reducing sugars decreased at D1 and maximum content was found in IR8. The starch content was found to be maximum in N22. Total amino acid content showed an increase with increase in heat stress in IR8 and PR116. Higher expression of PAL, TAL and phenolic constituents in N22 is suggestive of their significant role in development of tolerance exhibited by the cultivar N22 under heat stressed conditions.
Aims: Breast cancer (BC) is the greatest female malignancy and the leading causes of cancer death in the less developed countries. The determination of markers that help in diagnosis, prognosis, discovery of recurrence and metastasis is a valuable tool for management in BC patients. The present study aimed to provide insights about the role of Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) gene, hyaluronan (HA) and cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 in development and progression of BC, evaluate the possible correlations between these biomarkers and the clinico-pathological status of BC and compare between validity of these biomarkers with CA 15-3.
Methodology: This case-control and cohort study included 49 female patients from the South Egypt Cancer Institute, Surgery Department, Assiut University, from December, 2013 to March, 2015 and 10 healthy controls with matched age and sex. The patients were divided into 4 groups, group I: Included 39 female patients with breast cancer before operation, group II: Included 17 women from group I followed for 6 months after operation, group III: Included 9 women from group I followed for 12 months after operation, group IV: Included 10 female patients with benign breast diseases. Cav-1 gene analysis was performed by thermal cycler PCR method. Estimation of serum HA and CA 15-3 by ELISA and related clinico-pathological features were assessed.
Results: positive Cav-1 gene in 26 (66.7%) of 39 breast cancer patients was found. Benign and control groups were negative for the presence of the gene. Cav-1 gene was associated with larger tumor size (p<0.05), grade (p<0.05), advanced stage (p<0.01) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.05).The mean serum levels of HA and CA 15-3 were significantly higher in BC women before operation when compared to benign and control groups. Patients after 6 and 12 months follow up showed a decrement of CA 15-3 levels. Also, HA levels were changed towards normalization, 6 months after treatment.
Conclusion: presence of Cav-1 gene and high circulating HA, CA were significantly associated with breast carcinogenesis and metastasis. Accordingly, estimation of these biomarkers may expect the breast disease behavior and its prognosis.