Open Access Opinion Article

Randle Cycle as Applied to Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 ‘Spruce the Basement before Dusting the Super-structure’

A. S. V. Prasad

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35088

Randle cycle (1963) is about substrate competition between products of glycolysis and β–oxidation to capture the citric acid cycle for further oxidation. Acetyl –CoA, the end product of both the energy metabolisms, when  accumulates in mitochondrial matrix beyond the oxidative capacity of the citric acid cycle, far reaching consequences take place than simple substrate competition, inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), inhibition of glycolysis and preferential passage of β-oxidation products through citric acid cycle, as conceived by Randle. It is shown that citric acid cycle is equally shut off for both products of energy metabolism initially. Hence, the question of substrate competition between them does not arise. How the preferential passage of β-oxidation products occur is explained by a different mechanism than what Randle put forward. The final common pathway to either of β-oxidation or lipogenesis is- acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)-melanoyl- CoA-CPT 1. The final result depends on whether ACC is stimulated or inhibited inhibition results in β-oxidation and stimulation results in lipogenesis. Randle contention is not true because, simultaneously, AMPK is also inhibited which inhibits in turn the β -oxidation The proposed hypothesis suggests that low substrate for ACC i.e. Plasma acetyl- CoA, which is carboxylated to melanoyl- CoA is responsible for switch of energy metabolism to β-oxidation independent of AMPK. To corroborate the proposed mechanism, a low pyruvate level, an additional block in the glycolytic pathway at the level of Pyruvate kinase (PK) and involvement of hexose monophosphate shunt (HMP shunt) are proposed with objective evidence, supporting the same.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Activity of Solenostemon monostachyus (P. Beauv.) Briq. in Induced Rats

Iyanuoluwa Olubukola Osikoya, Israel Sunmola Afolabi, Adaobi Mary-Joy Okafor, Solomon Oladapo Rotimi

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35719

Aim: Solenostemon monostachyus (P.Beauv.) Briq.(SE) is the object of our investigation test the mechanism of its anti-oxidative action to  further establish its anti-sickling properties..

Sample: To correlate hematological parameters and antioxidant activities with the presence induced hemolytic anemia in female rats to validate other screening parameters.

Place and Duration of Study: The study as carried out in the covenant university animal house and biochemistry laboratory, department of biological sciences, covenant university. sample: the animals were obtained from the Institute for advanced medical research and training (IMRAT), college of medicine, UCH, Orita-mefa, Ibadan, Oyo state and allowed to acclimatize under a 12-hour light/dark cycle for 3 weeks prior to the commencement of the study between January 2015 and February 2015.

Methodology: 2-Butoxyethanol was used to induce hemolytic anemia resembling that of sickle cell disease. The methanolic extract of the leaves was orally administered for 5 days at 150 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of body weight doses to determine the antioxidant activities and some hematological indices of plasma in the kidney, spleen and liver of 2-butoxyethanol hemolytic-induced rats. Sample: we used 49 Wistar albino rats (49 female; weight: 95-120 g). Hematological examination (PCV, MCV, RBCs, and hemoglobin [Hb] count) and sICAM levels was done besides antioxidant activities (bilirubin, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, TBARS and peroxidase). Weight of the animals was also calculated.

Results: The results were analyzed using ANOVA. The result of the oxidative stress markers showed that SOD, TBARS and peroxidase were insignificant (P>0.05) in the kidney, liver and spleen of all the rats while GSH  in the kidney and liver insignificantly high in the SM-treated rats while GSH in the spleen was significantly increased in SM-150 (7.67±2.19) compared to control.

Conclusion: These doses have shown that they can be used alongside other drugs to alleviate oxidative stress in hemolytic anemic related diseases such as sickle cell disease.

These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate, Mineral, Sensory Evaluations and Shelf Stability of Chinchin Enriched with Ugu and Indian Spinach Vegetables

Olubukola, Akindele, Olasunkanmi, Gbadamosi, Kehinde, Taiwo, Durodoluwa Joseph Oyedele, Clement Adebooye

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/35736

The utilization of Indian spinach and ugu vegetables in the enrichment of chinchin was investigated with a view to providing information on the nutritional value of enriched chinchin. The vegetables (dried and crushed) were incorporated into wheat flour at 1.5%, 3% and 5% levels to produce enriched chinchin fried in canola oil at 170°C for 6 min. The enriched chinchin were evaluated for proximate and mineral composition, shelf stability as well as sensory characteristics. The result showed that ash, fibre, protein and fat increased from 0.92 to 1.72% and 1.76%, 1.80 to 2.17% and 2.12%, 10.51 to 12.37% and 14.58%, 11.67 to 17.34% and 13.91% while the moisture and carbohydrate decreased from 5.30 to 4.17% and 4.78%, 69.67 to 62.23% and 62.79% for chinchin enriched with ugu and Indian spinach vegetables, respectively. Potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc in the enriched chinchin increased from; 261.30 to 425 mg/100 g, 76.18 to 176.23 mg/100 g, 643.91 to 1684.27 mg/100g, 34.54 to 49.69 mg/100 g and 11.07 to 17.93 mg/100 g, respectively. Peroxide value (PV) of stored chinchin showed that PV of enriched chinchin increased from 28.26 to 32.19% during 4 weeks of storage at ambient temperature. The level of rancidity was within acceptable literature level for human consumption. Consumer acceptability of enriched sample was influenced by its color and taste which was impacted by the green color of the vegetables added. In conclusion, the addition of vegetables to chinchin enhanced its nutritional value of the chinchin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Storage Temperature on the Nutritional Compositions of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Spicy Tigernut- Milk Drink

N. Maduka, F. S. Ire

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/36135

The fundamental benefit for consuming edible products is based on its nutritional compositions. Several factors affect the nutritional composition of diverse edible products. This study was carried out between August-October, 2016 at Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (FIIRO), Lagos. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from ‘ogi’ using MRS agar and characterized using API 50 CHL test kit. Tigernut tubers were used to prepare tigernut-milk which was fermented by mixed culture of LAB for 12 hr at 45ºC. The LAB fermented tigernut-milk drink was separately spiced with 3 % (w/v) ginger, 5 % (w/v) ginger, 3 % (w/v) garlic and 5 % (w/v) garlic. The final products were stored at 28±2ºC and 4±2ºC for 12 wks and their nutritional composition was monitored at 4 wk interval using conventional and rapid test methods. Results obtained revealed there was reduction in carbohydrate, moisture and lipid content during storage of the tigernut-milk preparations. Importantly, the protein content in the tigernut-milk preparations increased during storage at both conditions except in the 5 % (w/v) ginger spiced tigernut-milk drink which ranged from (6.48-11.24 %) and (6.07-10.91 %) during ambient and refrigeration temperature storage, respectively. There was also reduction in Ca, K, Mg and Zn content in the tigernut-milk drink preparations during storage at 28±2ºC and 4±2ºC. Generally, the mineral content of spiced tigernut-milk drink preparations stored at 4±2ºC was higher than similar drink stored at 28±2ºC with very few exceptions. Remarkably, the high potassium content in 3 % (w/v) ginger and 3 % (w/v) garlic spiced tigernut-milk could be more effective in prevention of hypertension and artherosclerosis compared with 5 % (w/v) ginger spiced and 5 % (w/v) garlic spiced tigernut-milk drink. Therefore, this study projects tigernut-milk drink fermented by LAB and separately spiced with 3 % (w/v) ginger and 3 % (w/v) garlic as a nutritious drink to be preferably stored at refrigeration temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Glycemic Index of Some Traditional Ethiopian Foods

Meaza Assefa, Melaku Umeta, Natesan Gnanaseknran

International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/IJBCRR/2017/34471

Background: Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response after consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food relative to a reference food, typically glucose or white bread. Glycemic index was originally designed for people with diabetes as a guide to food selection, advice being given to select foods with a low GI. In Ethiopia information with regard to the glycemic index of commonly consumed traditional foods are not known. Therefore, the current study aims atassessingthe glycemic index of some common traditional Ethiopian foods. Thus generating information for the dietary management of diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods: Twelve different traditional Ethiopian foods were randomly selected from the local market and prepared at home following traditional methods. The foods were dried with sun light and oven (<85°C) and then the dried foods were manually grinded and powdered. The powders were kept in clean glasses at room temperature until used for the experiment. Twelve healthy mice (six for control and six for the test group) for each tested foods were used for the study. The mice were divided into two groups, group 1 is standard (each mouse administered 0.25 g of glucose) and group 2 is test (each mouse administered 0.25 g of test food). The test food and standard glucose were administered after overnight fasting and the blood glucose were measured at 30 minute intervals for the next twohours (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes). The blood glucose response curve was used to calculate the incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of each food and glucose. Glycemic index of food was calculated as a percentage of incremental area under the curve (IAUC) of each food from standard glucose and expressed as Mean±SE of each food.

Results: The result indicated thatamong the twelve traditional Ethiopian foods eight were found to have low glycemic index (GI≤55); these include: 1. White teff enjera, GI=35, 2. Red teff enjera, GI=39, 3. Maize enjera, GI= 43, 4. Barley bread, GI=25, 5. Qocho bread, GI=38, 6. pea sauce, GI=41, 7. Chickpeas sauce, GI=27, 8. Lentil sauce, GI=17, three foods had a moderate glycemic index (GI=56-69):1. Maize bread, GI= 56, 2. wheat bread, GI= 57, 3. Bullagenfo, GI=60 and one had a high glycemic index (GI≥70): 1. White bread, GI= 73.

Conclusions: The examined traditional Ethiopian foods provided important information for the public to guide food choice and could be useful for the prevention of diabetes mellitus.